1.1.1 C
1.1.2 C
1.1.3 A
1.1.4 A
1.1.5 B
1.1.6 D
1.1.7 C
1.1.8 B
1.1.9 C
1.1.10 C (10 x 1) (10)



  • It is a Hindu belief that every action has a consequence, which may show up only in a later reincarnation.
  • It also implies the results of actions.
  • It teaches that a person's actions in the past are responsible for his or her present state.


  • This is a state of perfect happiness and peace in Buddhism.
  • It is a state of realisation that there is no individual self or soul.
    NOTE: Any TWO relevant responses from each term must be credited. (2 x 2) (4)

1.2.2 Monotheistic/Monotheism (1)


  • Syncretism refers to two different belief systems combined to form a new one.
  • Example: African Initiated Churches, Sikhism (2 x 1) (2)


  • Zen practitioners meditate in order to attain enlightenment.
  • An important belief of Zen Buddhism is that there is a line of authority that goes back to the Buddha.
  • Zen tradition emphasises direct communication and not scriptural study or the study of religious texts. (2 x 1) (2)

1.2.5 The Bhagavad Gita is the most popular Hindu Holy Book. (1)

False: 'Maternal' means being related on the mother's side of the family./Paternal means being related on the father's side.

False: Mantra is a verse, syllable or phrase believed to be of divine origin and that is used in rituals or meditation in different religions.

1.3.3 True

False: The ideal in Theravada Buddhism is for the individual to live a life of meditation in order to become enlightened.

False: Doctrines refer to the beliefs that provide a central frame of reference for a religion. (5 x 2) (10)

1.4.1 Ancestor

1.4.2 Rome

1.4.3 Leadership

1.4.4 Hinduism

1.4.5 Yin; Yang (5 x 1) (5)


1.5.1 B
1.5.2 D
1.5.3 A
1.5.4 E
1.5.5 G (5 x 1) (5)

The other three are the main branches of Christianity.
Judaism is a Middle Eastern religion.
The Baha'i faith
It is a Middle Eastern religion.
The other four are Eastern religions.
The rest are Hindu schools.
Sufism is the mystical dimension of Islam.
It is the sacred text of the Baha'i faith.
The rest are texts of Judaism.
These are 613 rules observed by Jews.
The others are sacred text. (5 x 2) (10)

NOTE: In this section, each bulleted point denotes TWO marks.


  • Often contains historical and metaphorical material.
  • Myths are not factual accounts, but are used to convey spiritual truths.
  • They reveal the deepest truths about creation, life and death. (4)


  • This refers to what the adherents claim to be true.
  • They are what form the foundations that bring people together for a common cause and help to create a shared identity.
  • Beliefs mean a firm conviction e.g. according to the Jewish faith, there is only one God called Jehovah.
  • This is also the acceptance of a thing, fact, statement or teaching. (4)


  • The concept 'dogma' refers to the beliefs that people are expected to accept without doubt.
  • It means a principle, tenet or system of beliefs, particularly laid down by a collective religious authority.
  • A dogma is presented by the collective religious authority, as founded in divine inspiration. (4)


  • In religion, the term refers to family members who have died, but are still being remembered.
  • They are regarded as messengers of the Creator.
  • The veneration of ancestors is common in African Traditional Religion.
  • It is also believed that they can guide and protect the living. (4)


  • This refers to the rebirth of the soul or spirit into a new body.
  • It is a central belief in Hinduism.
  • It teaches that life is cyclical, as represented by the 'wheel of life'.
  • It emphasises the 'cause and effect' relationship between our present actions and the quality of future life. (4)

EXAMPLE 1: Christianity

  • Scripture readings and prayers in the family: A teaching that the family that prays together, stays together.
  • The teaching that the church begins at home as a unit and proceeds to the community of believers, who become the bigger family.
  • The Christian faith teaches love for one's neighbour, which promotes unity in the community.
  • The teaching that every human being is created in the image of God affirms the unity of mankind as the people of God.
  • The First Commandment emphasises love for God. This makes one feel unified with God.
  • The Christian faith teaches that one must give and share with the poor; this promotes unity in the community.
  • The teaching that the widows and orphans must be taken care of also promotes unity in the community.

EXAMPLE 2: African Traditional Religion

  • The veneration of ancestors leads the believer towards unity with the Supreme Being.
  • This is because the ancestors are seen as intermediaries between the living and God.
  • The principle of 'ubuntu' is essentially one that unites a community.
  • It means that one is a person through serving other persons.
  • It teaches collective responsibility.
  • An African community jointly owns land and access to water.
  • In this way, ubuntu teaches unity.
  • The teaching of 'ilima' is another example of how African Traditional Religion creates unity.
  • People who are in need are helped by other community members as a means of unconditional assistance.
  • For example, a farmer with abundant produce will give some of it to those who are in need. (10)


  • They believe in the prophets.
  • They believe in heaven and hell.
  • They believe in Judgement Day.
  • They are strictly monotheistic.
  • Their scriptures are divinely revealed.
  • They believe in the existence of angels.
  • They believe in a forgiving God.
    NOTE: Any other unique feature of the Abrahamic faiths must be credited. (10)


  • Christianity and Judaism: Love your neighbour as you love yourself.
  • Christianity: He has sent Me to bring good news to the poor, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and to set the oppressed free.
  • Christianity: Do unto others as you would like them to do unto you.
  • Buddhism: One should neither kill nor cause to kill.
  • Buddhism: Life is dear to all.
  • Buddhism: Extend your love to all.
  • Hinduism: The concept of ahimsa means never doing harm, even to those who disagree with you.
  • Hinduism: Hinduism recognises that there are different ways of worshipping Brahman.
  • Islam: There is no compulsion in Islam.
  • Islam: Do not mock the beliefs of other religions, lest they, out of ignorance, mock your beliefs.

NOTE: The candidate may use relevant examples from any number of religions. However, the candidate must not be credited if the teaching is not clearly linked to a specific religion.



  • They wanted publicity for the church.
  • They are aiming at increasing their membership numbers through advertising.
  • People are influenced by 'miracles'.
  • The church would get financial benefits. (6)

3.2 Yes

  • The FPB said the video had to be taken off the Internet as it was unclassified.
  • The video contained harmful acts that could be imitated.
  • This video was not suitable for children under the age of 13.
  • The video could lead to death if someone drank petrol.


  • The video shows the power of religion.
  • The video would contribute to the conversion of many people.
  • The people in the video were not harmed in any way.
  • There are many other videos on YouTube that are inappropriate, and are not removed.
  • Many religious believers believe that miracles are proof of the existence of God. (6)


  • Religions must have knowledge of how to use media and its restrictions.
  • Religions should be proactive and explain their point of view in the media.
  • Religion must also understand the responsibilities that media have towards communities.
  • Religious organisations must teach their members how to handle media.
  • Religious organisations must invite media experts for advice.
  • Media need to have knowledge and understanding of different religions before reporting on religious issues.
  • Media have a responsibility to present the information in an unbiased manner.
  • Because articles are written by individuals with personal opinions, these opinions may influence the readers on significant issues.
  • Media must exercise caution in making comments and statements that seem judgemental about religious issues.
  • Constitutional rights make provision for fair coverage on religious issues.
    NOTE: Candidates must be credited for any valid answers. (12)


  • The ideology of the editor.
  • Financial implications.
  • Creating sensation.
  • Influencing or change public opinion.
  • Bias against religions in general or a particular religion.
  • Informing the public on religious issues.
  • Propagating a religion or religious interpretation.
    NOTE: Candidates must be credited for other valid points. (10)


  • It means that every person should be free to choose his/her lifestyle.
  • It also means that everyone should feel free to hold any view they like, as long as in doing so they do not harm other people.
  • Persons belonging to a religious community have the right to enjoy practising their religion and to maintain religious association with other organs of civil society.
  • It is a fundamental right enshrined in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. (6)

3.6 EXAMPLE 1: Hinduism

  • The law of karma refers to the consequences of actions or deeds.
  • It teaches that a person's actions in the past are responsible for his or her present state.
  • Each person is responsible for his or her own future and can change it through repentance and good deeds.
  • Hindus believe that people vary in their degree of spiritual enlightenment and therefore tend to be more tolerant of other religions.
  • Hindus believe that every belief system, no matter what its content, can be seen as a lesser form of Hinduism.

EXAMPLE 2: Judaism

  • To the Jewish believers, it is more important to do what God wants them to do, rather than to believe in God.
  • The Jews express their faith through what they do and the Torah, which is God's Law.
  • The Torah includes a system of commandments for non-Jewish people known as the seven Noachide Laws, which enables the Jewish believers to be guided on how to be tolerant of the people of other religions.
  • An important part of being Jewish is helping others who are in need.
  • The collection of laws and rules relating to all aspects of a Jew's life is called the Mitzvot.
  • According to Judaism, people have the ability to be both good and evil and God is aware of humanity's limitations and weaknesses. Therefore, God will forgive them.


4.1 Christianity

  • Love your neighbour as you love yourself.
  • This means that one should respect the other person's views/see the problem through the other person's eyes.
  • Empathy contributes largely in resolving conflict.


  • Everything a person does shall be auspicious.
  • Right action and Right thought: emphasis on virtuous action will prevent conflict, as one will never offend other people.


  • If there is conflict between two parties of Believers, then mediate to bring about peace.
  • Forgiveness is far greater than revenge.


  • The principle of 'ubuntu' requires that no harm must be done to other people.
  • Conflict is resolved by invocation to the ancestors
  • Also, tribal/family leaders are consulted to find a solution.

NOTE: Other examples from various religions must be credited. (16)


Evangelistic wars

  • In such wars, a state decides that people of a neighbouring state must convert to the 'true' religion, or face conquest and punishment.

Wars of conquest

  • These are similar to evangelical wars, with military strength seen as a reflection of the glory of God.

Wars of self-defence

  • A nation has a right to fight back against its attackers.

Wars of retaliation

  • These are fought to avenge a wrong; if an offence is committed against a specific religion, it can be avenged. (12)


  • Example 1: Myanmar/Burma
  • Example 2: Nigeria (2)

Example 1: The warring parties are Buddhist extremists and the Rohingya Muslims.
Example 2: The warring parties are the Nigerian government and the Muslim fundamentalist group Boko Haram. (4)

Example 1: Myanmar/Burma

  • The dominant religion is Buddhism.
  • Other minority religions include Islam, Christianity and Hinduism.
  • The Muslims settled in Myanmar from present day Bangladesh over 500 years ago.
  • The Myanmar government refuses to recognise them as citizens.
  • They are referred to as Rohingya Muslims.
  • They have no legal status, and no identification documents.
  • The government applies openly discriminatory policies against them e.g their families are restricted to a maximum of two children; Rohingya Muslim couples must apply for government permission to marry.
  • The Myanmar government has been accused by the UN of supporting the Buddhists in the conflict.
  • Attacks by Buddhists have left thousands homeless.
  • The persecution is on the basis of religion.
  • Many mosques and Muslim businesses have been destroyed.
  • The Bangladesh government refuses to grant asylum to the Rohingya Muslims.

Example 2: Nigeria

  • Boko Haram means 'anti-West' (against Western culture).
  • This fundamentalist group aims to establish an Islamic state in northern Nigeria.
  • The Nigerian population is almost equally split between Muslim and Christian.
  • Christians fear that they will be dominated by a Muslim government.
  • Muslims fear the same.
  • Some Muslim leaders have lost faith in the Nigerian government.
  • They have taken the law into their own hands .i.e. they support Boko Haram.
  • Nigeria has porous borders with its neighbours.
  • The fighters can therefore escape to the neighbouring countries when they are pursued by government forces.
  • Corruption in the Nigerian government also contributes to the support of Boko Haram.
  • Rural communities are disadvantaged by the unfair distribution of state resources.
  • Such communities are supported by groups such as Boko Haram. [Mail and Guardian, 5 April 2012, p24]

NOTE: Similar answers for other conflict areas must be accepted. The candidate may use relevant examples from any number of religions.