AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES P1
FEBRUARY/MARCH 2016
MEMORANDUM

MARKS: 150

SECTION A

QUESTION 1

1.1

1.1.1 B √√
1.1.2 A √√
1.1.3 D √√
1.1.4 C √√
1.1.5 C √√
1.1.6 C √√
1.1.7 B √√
1.1.8 A √√
1.1.9 D √√
1.1.10 D √√

(10 x 2) (20)


1.2
1.2.1 B only √√
1.2.2 Both A and B √√
1.2.3 None √√
1.2.4 Both A and B √√
1.2.5 A only √√

(5 x 2) (10)

1.3
1.3.1 Vitamin K/phylloquinone √√
1.3.2 Rabies √√
1.3.3 Vaccination √√
1.3.4 Embryonic √√
1.3.5 Oxytocin √√

(5 x 2) (10)

1.4
1.4.1 Silage √
1.4.2 Zinc/Zn √
1.4.3 Pearson square √
1.4.4 Fluke worm/liver fluke √
1.4.5 Monozygotic/identical √
(5 x 1) (5)

TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B

QUESTION 2: ANIMAL NUTRITION

2.1 Alimentary canal of fowls

2.1.1 Identify

A – Crop √
B – Duodenum/small intestine √
E – Pancreas √ (3)

2.1.2 Ways in which structure C is adapted

  • Thick, muscular walls for grinding feed √
  • Presence of small stones for grinding feed √ (2)

2.1.3 Identification of structure B and estimation of pH

  • Proventriculus/true stomach/glandular stomach √
  • pH less than 7/acidic √ (2)

2.2 A schematic representation of the components of feeds

2.2.1 Identification of substances

A – Dry matter/DM √
B – Inorganic matter/minerals/elements/ash components √
C – Vitamins √ (3)

2.2.2 Distinction between oil and fat

Oil – Unsaturated/liquid at room temperature/plant origin √
Fat – Saturated/solid at room temperature/animal origin √ (2)

2.2.3 End-products of digestion

  1. Carbohydrate – Glucose/energy √
  2. Protein – Amino acids √ (2)

2.3 Fodder flow programme

2.3.1 Difference in feed requirement against the available feed for September

Feed requirement 66 tons – feed available 54 tons = 12 tons deficit/shortage √ (1)

January

Feed requirement 49 tons – feed available 78 tons = 29 tons surplus/excess √ (1)

2.3.2 Calculation of the total DM available for B

40 + 35 + 54 + 46 + 17 + 30 + 20 + 10 + 10 + 32 √
= 294 tons √ (2)

2.3.3 The month when the veld supplied 15 tons of fodder

February √ (1)

2.4 Co-efficient of digestibility of green lucerne

2.4.1 Determination of the co-efficient of digestibility of the green lucerne

DC = (Dry matter intake (kg) – dry matter excreted (kg))/dry matter intake (kg) x 100 √
 
= DM intake 2,5 kg x 0,6 = 1,5 kg moisture
2,5 kg – 1,5 kg = 1,0 kg DM √
OR
DM intake 2,5 kg x 0,4 = 1,0 kg DM

= (1,0 kg – 0,255 kg)/1.0kg x 100 √


= 74,5 √ % √ (5)

2.4.2 Specific nutrient which fits each of the following descriptions:

  1. Iron/Fe √
  2. Cobalt/Co √
  3. Vitamin B2/riboflavin √
  4. Calcium/Ca √    (4)

2.5 Data representing the laboratory results of THREE feed

2.5.1 Calculation of the NR for feed 2

NR = 1: (TDN% - DP%)/DP% √

= 1: (75% - 15%)/15% √ OR = 1: 60%/15% √

NR = 1: 4 √  (3)

2.5.2 Identification of the feed (1, 2 or 3) recommended

  • Feed 2 √ (1)

2.5.3 Reason to justify the answer in QUESTION 2.5.2

  • It has a narrower nutritive ratio √
  • Suggesting a comparatively higher protein necessary for milk production √ (Any 1) (1)

2.5.4 The cheapest feed

Feed 3 √ (1)

2.5.5 Reason for the answer in QUESTION 2.5.4

  • This feed has a lower protein content √
  • Feed with lower protein is cheap √ (Any 1) (1)
    [35]

QUESTION 3: ANIMAL PRODUCTION, PROTECTION AND CONTROL

3.1 An illustration of a proper housing structure for keeping broilers

3.1.1 Requirements of the roofing material to regulate temperature

  • Have a reflective surface on the outside √
  • Help to reduce conduction of heat √ (2)

3.1.2 TWO other ways in which temperature can be regulated

  • Heat lamps/heaters in cold weather √
  • Ventilation systems √
  • Air conditioning √ (Any 2) (2)

3.1.3 Best orientation for a broiler house

  • East √

Reason

  • To reduce the effect of direct sunlight √ (2)

3.1.4 TWO purposes of the part labelled A

  • To allow ventilation/air flow √
  • To allow diffused sunlight √ (2)

3.2 The role of shelter in animal production

3.2.1 Forms of shelter

  • Planting trees √
  • Building kraals √
  • Erecting concrete walls√ (Any 2) (2)

3.2.2 Consequences of lack of shelter

  • Lower/slower growth/production √
  • Exposure to predators √
  • Exposure to pests √
  • Stock theft √
  • Higher feed intake when it is cold√
  • lower feed intake when it is hot √ (Any 3) (3)

3.2.3 Reason to use up more energy

  • To provide energy to sustain their body temperature √ (1)

3.3 The life cycles of two external parasites (ticks A and B)

3.3.1 Length for hatching of tick A's eggs

  • 1 month √ (1)

3.3.2 Disadvantage to cattle

  • Open wounds form √
  • Through which blowflies can attack animals √
  • This can cause diseases √ (Any 2) (2)

3.3.3 TWO reasons for preventing parasite infestation

  • Infected animals may die/Loss of production/income √
  • Medication/treatment is expensive/higher production cost √ (2)

3.3.4 Reasons why is it difficult to control the numbers of tick B

  • The adult stage is only found in birds √
  • Which is difficult to catch/control/treat √ (2)

3.4 The role of the state in regulating farming practises

3.4.1 Type of research done by the state at the Veterinary Institute

  • Veterinary research to improve vaccines/diagnostic/new products √
  • Surveillance/control/preventing diseases √
  • Producing disease/blood vaccines √ (3)

3.4.2 Purpose of a quarantine station

  • To isolate/detain animals and √
  • prevent diseases/pests entering/spreading in the country √ (2)

3.4.3 Other roles the state play to protect the animal industry

  • Animal health schemes √
  • Duties of owners of animals √
  • Import bans √
  • Importation of vaccines √
  • Movement permits √ (Any 2) (2)

3.5 The temperature required by farm animals

3.5.1 Bar graph

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Criteria/rubric/marking guidelines

Correct heading √
X axis – correctly calibrated and labelled (Type of animal) √
Y axis – correctly calibrated and labelled (Temperature) √
Correct units (oC) √
Accuracy √
Bar graph √  (6)

3.5.2 Deduction of farm animal with highest optimum temperature

Piglet √ (1)
[35]

QUESTION 4: ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

4.1 The stages of the oestrus cycle in a cow

4.1.1 Indication of oestrus cycle stages:

  1. C √ (1)
  2. B √ (1)
  3. A √ (1)

4.1.2 Hormones during stage C

  1. Oestrogen √  (1)
  2. Luteinising hormone √  (1)

4.1.3 The role of the hormone

  • Responsible for the rupturing of the membrane of the Graafian follicle √ 
  • It initiates ovulation √  (Any 1) (1)

4.1.4 Identification of the stage of the oestrus cycle labelled B

Pro-oestrus √  (1)

4.2 The female reproductive tract

4.2.1 Deposition of semen:

  1. G √  (1)
  2. F/E √  (1)

4.2.2 Identification of the structure collecting the ripe follicle:

  1. A √ Infundibulum √ (2)
  2. B √ Ampulla √ (2)

4.2.3 Concept of ovulation

  • Process whereby the membrane containing the ripe follicle bursts with the help of LH and √
  • the ripe ovum is released into the infundibulum √ (2)

4.3 The process of spermatogenesis

4.3.1 Deduction on the type of cell division:

Meiosis √ Reason - genetic material is reduced into half/diploid(2n) changed into haploid (n)/reduction division √ (2)

4.3.2 The stages of spermatogenesis:
C – Formation of the spermatids √
D – Formation of sperm cells/spermatozoa √ (2)

4.3.3 Part of the testes where spermatogenesis takes place

  • Tubules seminiferous √ (1)

4.3.4 The organ where the spermatozoa achieve mobility

  • Epididymis √ (1)

4.3.5 Similarity between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

  • Both occur through meiosis to produce haploid cells √
  • Both produce gametes/sex cells √ (Any 1) (1)

4.4 Mating during oestrus

4.4.1 Devices to detect oestrus in the cow

  • Pedometer √
  • Chin-ball marker √
  • Tail-chalking √
  • Kamar heatmount detector √ (Any 3) (3)

4.4.2 Sequential order of FOUR reproductive hormones that are produced by a cow

  • Progesterone √
  • Luteotrophic hormone/LTH/prolactin √
  • Relaxin √
  • Oxytocin √ (Any 4) (4)

4.5 Embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation

4.5.1 Definition of superovulation

  • The production of a larger number of ova √
  • at one ovulation √ (2)

4.5.2 THREE advantages of embryo transfer (ET)

  • More progeny can be produced √
  • Higher profits due to increase in sales √
  • Productive lives of cows are increased √
  • Genetics of the herd is conserved √
  • Superior genes are introduced into the herd √ (Any 3) (3)

4.5.3 Reason for using proven bulls

  • To introduce superior/desirable genes into the herd rapidly and economically √ (1)

[35]
TOTAL SECTION B: 105
GRAND TOTAL: 150