AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES P2 Past Paper FEBRUARY/MARCH 2016 Memo/Memorandum - GRADE 12 NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES P2
FEBRUARY/MARCH 2016
MEMORANDUM

MARKS: 150

SECTION A

QUESTION 1

1.1 
1.1.1 B √√
1.1.2 C √√
1.1.3 A √√
1.1.4 C √√
1.1.5 B √√
1.1.6 C √√
1.1.7 A √√
1.1.8 D √√
1.1.9 D √√
1.1.10 C  √√ (10 x 2) (20)


1.2
1.2.1 D √√
1.2.2 C √√
1.2.3 E √√
1.2.4 A √√
1.2.5 G √√ (5 x 2) (10)


1.3
1.3.1 Budget √√
1.3.2 Equilibrium price √√
1.3.3 Capital √√
1.3.4 Biometrics √√
1.3.5 Epistasis √√ (5 x 2) (10)

1.4
1.4.1 Marketing √
1.4.2 Technical √
1.4.3 Net Farm Income √
1.4.4 Skilled √
1.4.5 Breeding value √  (5 x 1) (5)

TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B
QUESTION 2: AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

2.1 The illustration representing marketing strategy

2.1.1 Marketing strategies

  1. A - Product √ 
  2. B - Price √ 
  3. C - Place √ 
  4. D - Promotion √  (4)

2.1.2 TWO factors to consider when planning a product

  • Quality √
  • Design √
  • Branding √
  • Packaging √
  • Size √
  • Warranty √ (Any 2) (2)

2.1.3 TWO ways to implement the strategy

  • Advertising √
  • In-store promotion √
  • Direct mailing √
  • Trade fairs and exhibition √
  • Sponsorship √
  • Personal selling √ (Any 2) (2)

2.1.4 TWO aspects to consider when deciding on pricing

  • Cost √
  • Demand √
  • Competition √ (Any 2) (2)

2.2 Marketing system

2.2.1 Identification of the marketing system

Co-operative marketing system √ (1)

2.2.2 THREE advantages of co-operative marketing

  • Farmers (producers) will have a better chance to negotiate a good price for their produce √
  • They will have an access to professional expertise √
  • They can afford better infrastructure as a group than as individuals √
  • They can buy fertiliser or packaging material cheaper √
  • They can develop a brand for their produce which makes them more visible to the potential buyers √
  • They can access funding from the government as a cooperative √ (Any 3) (3)

2.2.3 TWO principles of co-operative marketing

  • Voluntary membership √
  • Democratic member control √
  • Member's economic participation √
  • Autonomy and independency √ (Any 2) (2)

2.3 Quantities of product 1 and 2 supplied

2.3.1 Formulation of hypothesis

Producers may not increase the supply of agricultural product √
even when the price has increased in a short period of time √

OR

If the price of an agricultural product increases,√
the supply may not increase within a short period of time √ (2)

2.3.2 Calculation of price elasticity of supply for product 1 and 2

  • Product 1 = 13%/20% 
    = 0,65 √ (2)
  • Product 2 = 39%/20%
    = 1,95 √ (2)

2.3.3 Interpretation of price elasticity of supply for the two products

  • Supply for product 1 is inelastic √
  • Supply for product 2 is elastic √ (2)

2.3.4 TWO factors affecting supply of the products

  • Price √ 
  • Possibilities of increasing the supply of goods/time √ 
  • Technology √ 
  • Production costs √ 
  • Expectations of the future price √ 
  • Environmental conditions √ 
  • Subsidies √ (Any 2) (2)

2.4 SWOT analysis

2.4.1 Use of SWOT analysis to identify the following

(a) TWO strengths

  • Availability of land √ 
  • Services by an extension officer √ 
  • Human resource √  (Any 2) (2)

(b) ONE weakness

  • Lack of capital √ 
  • Lack of skills √  (Any 1) (1)

(c) ONE opportunity

  • Identified market √ 
  • Services of the extension officer √  (Any 1) (1)

(d) TWO threats

  • Unreliable weather √ 
  • Competition from another project/Flourishing project in a nearby village √ 
  • Lack of funds √ 
  • Lack of skills √  (Any 2) (2)

2.4.2 THREE actions to correct threats

  • Application of scientific methods/ use of modern technology √ 
  • Establishment of sound market chain √ 
  • Consider processing and value adding √ 
  • Source interest free funding and subsidies √ 
  • Consider training; internships and voluntary hands on experience √  (Any 3) (3)

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QUESTION 3: PRODUCTION FACTORS

3.1 Land as a production factor

3.1.1 TWO characteristics of land

  • Land is subject to the law of diminishing return √ 
  • Land is durable (2)

3.1.2 Explanation of the law of diminishing return

  • More units of fertiliser √ 
  • Did not result to proportional further increase the yield √  (2)

3.1.3 TWO functions of land from the case study

  • It enables the production of food √ 
  • It provides physical space for industry √  (2)

3.1.4 TWO ways to increase productivity of land

  • Changing cropping systems/intercropping/adaptation to scientific methods √ 
  • Restoring land potential/halting erosion √ 
  • Consolidate small uneconomic land units √ 
  • Improving water management/provision √  (Any 2) (2)

3.2 Capital as a production factor

3.2.1 Explanation of the assistance of using a cash flow budget

  • It shows the flow of cash into and out of the farming operation √ 
  • To determine the profit and loss √  (2)

3.2.2 Monthly income

  • Sale of eggs = R8 000 per week x 4 = R32 000 √ 
  • Sale of broilers = R12 500 per week x 4 = R50 000 √ 
    = R32 000 + R50 000 = R82 000 √  (3)

3.2.3 Decision to continue with the business

  • Farmer must continue with the business √ (1)

3.2.4 Reason

  • Income is more than the expenditure √ 
  • The business is run at a profit. (Profit is R43 000) √ (2)

3.2.5 TWO forms of capital

  • Floating/working capital √ 
  • Movable capital √  (2)

3.3 Ability levels of farmers and farm workers

3.3.1 TWO skills of farm manager based on graph

  • Planning √ 
  • Entrepreneurial √  (2)

3.3.2 One important skill needed by the farm worker

Technical skill √  (1)

3.3.3 Justification of skill needed by the farm worker

  • Worker needs to perform practical activities √ 
  • using hands √  (2)

3.3.4 TWO management skills important to the farmer other than the skills in the graph

  • Financial √ 
  • Communication and interpersonal √ 
  • Problem-solving √ 
  • Decision-making √  (Any 2) (2)

3.3.5 TWO management principles

  • Planning √ 
  • Motivation √ 
  • Control √ 
  • Implementation √ 
  • Control √  (Any 2) (2)

3.4 Labour Legislation

3.4.1 21 days leave of absence farm employees entitled to

Annual leave √  (1)

3.4.2 4 months leave of absence female employees entitled to

Maternity leave √  (1)

3.4.3 Leave of absence for flu

Sick leave √  (1)

3.5 Labour

3.5.1
Calculation of worker payment during public holiday

  • R111.72 x 2 = R223.44 √  OR R111.72 x 2 x 3 √  =
    R670.32 √ 
  • R223.44 x 3 = R670.32 √   (2)

3.5.2 Deduction of a labour practice

Unfair labour practice √  (1)

3.5.3 Justification of answer in QUESTION 3.5.2

  • Worker underpaid/worker received R270.32 less √ 
  • Public holidays are double paid according to Public Holiday Act/ allowance on public holidays is double the allowance of normal working days √  (2)

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QUESTION 4: BASIC AGRICULTURAL GENETICS

4.1 Growth rates between cattle breeds

4.1.1 Type of breeding system

Cross breeding √  (1)

4.1.2 Parents that produced calves with highest average daily gain

Hereford bulls and Brahman cows √ (1)

4.1.3 TWO reasons for better performance of these calves

  • Offspring have hybrid vigour/heterosis √ 
  • Are better adapted to poor veld conditions/more hardy √ 
  • Have a better feed conversion rate √  (Any 2) (2)

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4.1.4 Criteria/rubric/marking guidelines

  • Correct heading √ 
  •  X axis - correctly calibrated and labelled (number crossing) √ 
  • Y axis - correctly calibrated and labelled (ADG) √ 
  • Correct units (g/day) √ 
  • Accuracy √ 
  • Bar graph √  (6)

4.2 Inheritance

4.2.1 Type of inheritance controlling milk yield

Polygenic inheritance √  (1)

4.2.2 Milk yield of a Jersey cow with genotype AAbb

AA = 20+ 20 = 40 litres √ 
AAbb = 200 + 40 litres √ 
= 240 litres √  (3)

4.2.3 Phenotypic and genotypic ratio of F1-generation

AABB x aabb
AB x ab √ 
Genotype : 4 AaBb √ 
Phenotype : all producing 240 litres √  (3)

4.3 Inheritance

4.3.1 The phenomenon in QUESTION 4.3

Atavism √ (1)

4.3.2 Reason

  • A recessive gene for red which was switched off and not expressed √ 
  • In the phenotype in the past is now switched on and expressed √  (2)

4.3.3 Alternative term for atavism

Throwback √ (1)

4.4 Selection and breeding

4.4.1 Differentiation between selection and heritability 

Selection

  • is choosing of individuals for breeding purposes √ 
  • due to superior characteristics √  (2)

Heritability

  • is the degree to which the characteristics are determined √ 
  • by genetic factors √  (2)

4.4.2 TWO advantages of a species crossing

  • They are hardy animals √ 
  • They are drought animals √ 
  • They are highly durable √  (Any 2) (2)

4.4.3 TWO related breeding systems

  • Line breeding √ 
  • Inbreeding √  (2)

4.4.4 Importance of using EBV

  • It indicates the heritability of a particular characteristic √ 
  • to predict the success of a breeding programme √  (2)

4.5 Effects of mutagenic agents

4.5.1 Gamma and X-rays

Damages DNA molecule and causes it to break √ (1)

4.5.2 Metals

Change the chemical structure of a DNA molecule √ (1)

4.5.3 Alkaloids

They prevent chromosome segregation √ (1)

4.5.4 Viruses

They insert their own DNA √  (1)
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TOTAL SECTION B: 105
GRAND TOTAL: 150