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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES PAPER 1 GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2016

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
PAPER ONE (P1)
GRADE 12 
NSC EXAM PAPERS AND MEMOS
NOVEMBER 2016

MEMORANDUM

SECTION A
QUESTION 1 
1.1

1.1.1 B ✔✔ 
1.1.2 A ✔✔ 
1.1.3 C ✔✔ 
1.1.4 C ✔✔ 
1.1.5 D ✔✔ 
1.1.6 D ✔✔ 
1.1.7 A ✔✔ 
1.1.8 D ✔✔ 
1.1.9 B ✔✔ 
1.1.10 C ✔✔ (10 x 2) (20) 

1.2

1.2.1 A only ✔✔ 
1.2.2  None ✔✔ 
1.2.3 Both A and B ✔✔ 
1.2.4 B only ✔✔ 
1.2.5 A only ✔✔ (5 x 2) (10)

1.3

1.3.1 Polyneuritis ✔✔ 
1.3.2 Intermediary/intermediate host ✔✔ 
1.3.3 Anterior ✔✔
1.3.4 Enucleating ✔✔ 
1.3.5 Pedometer ✔✔ (5 x 2) (10) 

1.4

1.4.1 Feed Conversion Ratio ✔
1.4.2 Infectious/contagious ✔ 
1.4.3 Donor/superior ✔
1.4.4 Dry ✔ 
1.4.5   Prolapsed vagina/prolapse✔ (5 x 1) (5)

 TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B 
QUESTION 2: ANIMAL NUTRITION 
2.1 Alimentary canal of farm animals 

2.1.1 Identification of a non-ruminant animal  

    • Animal 2 ✔ (1) 

2.1.2 Reason 

It does not have a complex stomach/has simple stomach ✔ (1)  

2.1.3 Type of feed in ration of animal 1 

Roughage ✔ (1) 

2.1.4 ONE reason for the feeding a roughage 

    • Has a higher crude fibre/cellulose content needed for the  activity of rumen micro flora ✔ (1) 

2.1.5 Letter representing a part enabling the digestion of roughage

    • A ✔ (1) 

2.1.6 Explanation of the role of parts D and E in digestion 

      • Part D – Contains enzymes for digestion of grain feed ✔ (1)
      • Part E – Helps to soften and moistens grain feed✔ (1) 

2.2 Energy flow in an animal 

2.2.1 Completion of representation 

    • A – Metabolic energy ✔ (1)
    • B – Faeces ✔ (1)
    • C – Body Heat ✔ (1)

2.2.2 Energy as final combustion heat released during oxidation 
         GE/Gross energy ✔ (1) 

2.2.3 Formula to work out digestible energy 

DE = gross energy – energy lost in faeces ✔ (1) 

2.2.4 TWO reasons for the importance of net energy 

    • Needed for production ✔
    • Needed for maintenance ✔ (2)

2.3 Biological values of feeds 

2.3.1 Feeds and reasons 

    1. Fishmeal ✔ (1)
      Reason
      It has the highest BV(90)/essential amino acids needed for growth✔ (1)
    2. Maize ✔ (1)
      Reason
      It is has the highest energy value/energy value of 80 that is needed  for fattening ✔ (1)
    3. Barley ✔ (1)
      Reason
      They need feed with a low BV/BV of 50/energy value of 60% necessary for maintenance ✔ (1) 

2.3.2 Reason for high BV in lucerne over barley 

    • Lucerne is a legume crop that is rich in proteins ✔
    • Barley is a non-legume which is poor in proteins/rich in  carbohydrates ✔ (2) 

2.4 Fodder flow programme 

2.4.1 Total feed needed for the year: 
Need for the dry season 
Need per animal/day x number of animals x 30 days x 6 months  

    • 15 kg x 30 animals x 30 days x 6 months ✔
    • = 81 000 kg ✔

Need for the whole year = Rainy season need + Dry season need 

    • 108 000 kg + 81 000 kg = 189 000 kg ✔ (3) 

2.4.2 Total amount available for the dry season 

    • 0,15 x 1000 x 42 x 6 ✔
    • = 37 800 kg ✔ (2) 

2.4.3 Feed flow problem for the farmer during the dry season 
Need of feed exceeds the available resources/shortage as  37 800 kg✔ available compared to 81 000 kg need for the  animals ✔ (2) 

2.4.4 Sustainable measure to correct the shortage 

    • Cutting fodder during rainy season✔
    • Storage of fodder for dry season✔ 
    • Culling/stock reduction ✔ (Any 1)  (1)

2.5 Balanced ration 

2.5.1 Amounts of maize and sunflower oilcake in 600kg 

    • Maize = 61.29 x 600 kg ✔ 
                          100 
       = 367.74 kg ✔
    • Sunflower oilcake = 38.71 x 600 kg ✔ 
                                              100 
      = 232.26 kg ✔ (4) 

2.5.2 Feed constituting 19 parts 
Maize meal ✔ (1)

[35] 

QUESTION 3: ANIMAL PRODUCTION, PROTECTION AND CONTROL 3.1 Floor space required by pigs 

3.1.1 Bar graph 
3.1 agric
Criteria/rubric/marking guidelines 

    • Correct heading ✔
    • X-axis – correct calibrations and labelled (Live mass) ✔
    • Y-axis – correct calibrations and labelled (Floor space required) ✔ 
    • Both units are correct unit (m2/kg) ✔
    • Bar graph ✔
    • Accuracy ✔ (6) 

3.1.2 Trend between floor space required and live mass 

    • The increase in live mass✔ leads to 
    • Increase in floor space required✔ (2) 

3.2 Apparatus used for procedures in animal production system 

3.2.1 Identification of the apparatus 
         Illustrator/rubber ring ✔ (1) 
3.2.2 TWO management practices for the use of the apparatus

    •  Tail docking ✔ 
    • Castration ✔ (2)

3.2.3 ONE reason for the importance of each practice 
Tail docking 

    • Hygienic purposes/prevention of blowfly attacks ✔
    • Better reproduction ✔ (Any 1) 

Castration 

  • For better breeding purposes 
  • All the inferior male animals are castrated ✔ (2)

3.3 Loading and transportation of farm animals 

3.3.1 Facility to direct animal 
Crush ✔ (1) 
3.3.2 TWO measures to design a crush 

    • Should have high/strong/solid sides in order to prevent  animals from seeing out ✔
    • Should have single/narrow curves that are not sharp ✔
    • Nothing that can harm/hurt/cause injury to animals should be  included ✔ (Any 2) (2) 

3.3.3 Document needed to transport animals 
Permit ✔ (1) 
3.3.4 TWO precautionary measures to reduce stress in animals

    •  Keep animals to be transported together for 2 or 3 days ✔ 
    • Group animals of the same size/sex/age together ✔ (2)

3.4 Life cycle of a blowfly 

3.4.1 Name of the parasite 
Blowfly ✔ (1) 
3.4.2 Harmful stage in the life cycle 
Larval stage ✔ (1) 
3.4.3 Condition caused by larval stage 
Blowfly strike/attacks ✔ (1) 
3.4.4 Term used for removal of wool 
Crutching ✔ (1)
3.4.5 THREE non-chemical management practices to control  parasite infestation 

    • Correct timing of shearing and crutching ✔
    • Clipping and cleaning of wool ✔
    • Tail docking ✔
    • Lambing time after shearing ✔
    • Breeding and selection of resistant breeds ✔ (Any 3) (3)

3.5 Plant poisoning 

3.5.1 Feed them before transporting ✔ (1)
3.5.2 Inspection of hay for fusarium/fungi ✔ (1)
3.5.3 Practise rotational grazing ✔ (1)

3.6 Animal diseases 

3.6.1 Type of pathogen  
Virus✔ (1) 
3.6.2 Common characteristic 
Both are contagious/deadly ✔ 
Both are enzootic ✔ (Any 1) (1) 
3.6.3 TWO roles of state in controlling the spread of diseases 

    • Public awareness/notify public ✔
    • Import/export bans ✔
    • Supplying veterinary services ✔
    • Setting of quarantine zones ✔ (Any 2) (2) 

3.6.4 TWO economic implications of diseases 

    • Export bans affect economy ✔
    • Job loss ✔
    • Financial implications/millions of rands lost ✔
    • Cost/time/labour of medication ✔
    • Suspension of production ✔ (Any 2) (2)

[35]

QUESTION 4: ANIMAL REPRODUCTION 
4.1 Graph showing volume and concentration of semen in animals 

4.1.1 Concentration of semen at volume of 6ml 

    • 1 billion/ml ✔ (1) 

4.1.2 Correlation  
         Dairy cattle  

    • Dairy bulls produce a lot of semen✔that is less concentrated ✔ (2) 

Sheep  

    • Sheep produce less semen✔ that is highly concentrated ✔ (2) 

4.2 Semen colour and quality 

4.2.1 Reason for the colour of semen 

    1. Presence of fresh blood ✔ (1)
    2. Presence of old blood/infection ✔ (1) 

4.2.2 TWO negative effects on quality of semen 

    • Poor nutrition ✔
    • Severe environmental conditions/temperature✔
    • Age✔
    • Diseases ✔ (Any 2) (2)

4.3 Techniques to increase number of offspring 

4.3.1

    1. Cloning ✔(1) 
    2. Embryo Transplantation ✔(1) 
    3. Artificial insemination ✔(1) 
    4. Cloning ✔ (1) 

4.3.2 Correct stage of insemination 
Oestrus ✔ (1) 
4.3.3 Relationship between ovulation and insemination timing 

    •  AI should be performed approximately 6–14 hours before  ovulation ✔
    • That gives time for semen to move to the fallopian tube ✔
    • So that the ovum does not wait too long before fertilisation ✔ (3)

4.4 Multiple births 

4.4.1 Types of twins in representation A and B 

    • A Dizygotic twin ✔
    • B Monozygotic twin ✔ (2) 

4.4.2 Justification 

    • A – two eggs fertilised to produce two different offspring ✔
    • B – one egg cell fertilised to produce two similar offspring ✔ (2)

4.4.3 Process in representation B 
Cleavage of the same zygote ✔ (1) 
4.4.4 Reason for the gender of the twins in representation A 
Fertilisation of two separate ova ✔ (1) 
4.4.5 THREE factors for multiple births 

    • Fertility/genetics ✔
    • Environmental factors ✔
    • Breed type ✔
    • Nutrition ✔ (Any 3) (3)

4.5 Foetal position 

4.5.1 Identification of parturition stage  
Preparatory ✔ (1) 
4.5.2 Appropriate scientific name for calving difficulty 
Dystocia ✔ (1) 
4.5.3 TWO actions to save a calf and the cow 

    • Correcting the position before calving ✔ 
    • Veterinary section if position cannot be corrected ✔ (2)

4.6 Milk ejection 

4.6.1 TWO stimuli by the milker 

    • Washing of udder ✔
    • Massage of the udder ✔
    • Appearance and sound of the milker ✔ 
    • Milking action ✔ (Any 2) (2) 

4.6.2 Hormone for milk ejection 
Oxytocin ✔ (1) 
4.6.3 Hormone inhibiting milk ejection 
Adrenalin ✔ (1) 
4.6.4 Bacterial disease affecting the udder 
Mastitis ✔ (1)

[35] 
TOTAL SECTION B: 105 
 GRAND TOTAL: 150

Last modified on Tuesday, 15 June 2021 07:27