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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES PAPER 2 GRADE 12 QUESTIONS - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2016

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
PAPER TWO (P2)
GRADE 12
NSC EXAM PAPERS AND MEMOS
NOVEMBER 2016

INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 

  1. This question paper consists of TWO sections, namely SECTION A and  SECTION B. 
  2. Answer ALL the questions in the ANSWER BOOK.
  3. Start EACH question on a NEW page. 
  4. Number the answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this  question paper. 
  5. You may use a non-programmable calculator. 
  6. Show ALL calculations, including formulae, where applicable.
  7. Write neatly and legibly.

QUESTIONS

SECTION A 
QUESTION 1 
1.1 Various options are provided as possible answers to the following questions.  Write down the question number (1.1.1–1.1.10), choose the answer and make  a cross (X) over the letter (A–D) of your choice in the ANSWER BOOK. 

EXAMPLE: 
1.1.11 
agric s 1
1.1.1 A measure by a farmer to reduce the risk on his/her income: 

    1. Insurance
    2. Selling
    3. Pawning
    4. Bartering 

1.1.2 The law of demand states that … 

    1. the greater the number of consumers, the lower the demand  for a specific product.
    2. the higher the income of consumers, the less demand there  will be for a specific product.
    3. if the price of a product rises, the demand for it will increase too.
    4. if the price of a product falls, the demand for it will increase.  

1.1.3 Which ONE of the following statements about an entrepreneur is  INCORRECT? 
        An entrepreneur is a person who …

    1. takes risks
    2. only works for somebody else to earn a salary.
    3. works hard.
    4. has a desire to achieve success. 

1.1.4 Peaches are summer fruits in South Africa. They are more  expensive during winter and at the beginning of spring because  the … 

    1. supply of peaches is strictly controlled during this time.
    2. earlier peaches taste better.
    3. supply of peaches during winter and spring is still limited.
    4. price of peaches is affected by their availability.
      Choose the correct combination: 
      1. (i), (ii) and (iii)
      2. (ii), (iii) and (iv)
      3. (i), (ii) and (iv)
      4. (i), (iii) and (iv) 

1.1.5 Which ONE of the following is an internal factor that may influence  a farming business? 

    1. Legislation about labour practices
    2. The capability and competency of the management and  farm workers
    3. Values and lifestyle choices of consumers
    4. Exchange rates and taxation 

1.1.6 The following is NOT a problem associated with capital as a  production factor: 

    1. Subjected to risk
    2. Too little capital is invested 
    3. Limited lifespan of goods
    4. Decreased competency of technicians 

1.1.7 The Labour Relations Act, 1995 (Act 66 of 1995) deals with the  following issues: 

    1. The production status of animals 
    2. Procedures for the resolution of labour disputes 
    3. Ensures that some labourers receive financial training
    4. Ensures social justice and fair working conditions
      Choose the correct combination:
      1. (i), (iii) and (iv) 
      2. (ii), (iii) and (iv) 
      3. (i), (ii) and (iv) 
      4. (i), (ii) and (iii) 

1.1.8 An example of a factor of production with a value that appreciates  over time: 

    1. Equipment
    2. Machinery
    3. Farmland
    4. Money 

1.1.9 A heterozygous Brahman bull is mated with a heterozygous cow.  The expected phenotypic ratio will be ...  

    1. 3 : 1
    2. 1 : 3 : 1
    3. 1 : 1
    4. 1 : 2 : 1

1.1.10 The image below represents …, which causes chromosome  mutation.  
1.1.10

    1. deletion
    2. translocation
    3. inversion
    4. duplication (10 x 2)

(20) 

1.2 Choose a term/phrase from COLUMN B that matches a description in  COLUMN A. Write only the letter (A–J) next to the question number  (1.2.1–1.2.5) in the ANSWER BOOK, for example 1.2.6 K. 

COLUMN A 

COLUMN B

1.2.1 A form of sustainable measure directed  at consumers that takes environmental  concerns into consideration
1.2.2  A management strategy in which the  cost of the consequences of  unforeseen incidents is shared by  several parties  
1.2.3 Farm worker with a tertiary farming  qualification and many years of farming  experience 
1.2.4  Too much capital is invested in a  farming enterprise in relation to the  available land and labour 
1.2.5 The difference in the genotypes and  phenotypes of cattle of the same breed

A Internetmarketing 
B overcapitalisation
C variation 
D specialisation  
E eco-labelling 
F heritability 
G risk sharing 
H labour legislation 
I undercapitalisation 
J skilled labour

(5 x 2) (10)

1.3 Give ONE word/term for each of the following descriptions. Write only the  word/term next to the question number (1.3.1–1.3.5) in the ANSWER BOOK. 

1.3.1 The way in which price changes a demand or supply curve 
1.3.2 The movement of money in a business over a specific period of time 
1.3.3 The total number of gene effects that are inherited by the progeny  that will determine its performance for breeding purposes 
1.3.4 The phenomenon where one gene affects the phenotypic  expression of another gene  
1.3.5 A gradual decrease in the performance from generation to  generation due to the continual breeding of related animals (5 x 2) (10)

1.4 Change the UNDERLINED WORD(S) in each of the following statements to make them TRUE. Write only the answer next to the question number  (1.4.1–1.4.5) in the ANSWER BOOK. 

1.4.1 Value-adding is the alteration of the raw form of a product into a  form that is easier for consumers to use.  
1.4.2 Labour fatigue is the amount of work performed relative to the  amount of money that is spent. 
1.4.3 Electroporation involves using fats as carriers of the required DNA  through the cell membrane into a nucleus.
1.4.4 Prepotency means that both alleles are equally dominant and  visible in the phenotype of the offspring. 
1.4.5 The purposeful method of deciding which individual plants and  animals to choose for breeding to accomplish specific characteristics in the progeny, is called epistasis. (5 x 1) (5)

TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B 
QUESTION 2: AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING
Start this question on a NEW page. 
2.1 

After harvesting, most products are taken to a facility where they are cleaned,  graded, packed into boxes, stored and then transported to the market.

2.1.1 Identify the functions of agricultural marketing above with regard to each of the following: 

    1. Products are taken from the farm to the market. (1) 
    2. Products are kept on the farm before they are transported to  the market. (1) 

2.1.2 Give an economic term used to describe each of the following  statements:  

(a) Products are packed into boxes. (1) 
(b) Products are kept in a cool place to give them a long  shelf life. (1) 
(c) A product is altered from its raw form. (1) 

2.1.3 State TWO advantages of processing agricultural products. (2)

2.2 The table below represents TWO farmers who produce peppers. 

FARMER A 

FARMER B

  • Realises that yellow peppers grow faster and have a higher yield 
  • Decides to plant two hectares with  a yield of 300 tons 
  •  Appoints a middleman to sell the  produce to different markets 
  •  Produce is sold at R4/kg 
  • Realises that sales are poor and  lowers the price to R2/kg
  • Does research to determine which  pepper is preferred by consumers
  • Consumers show interest in red  peppers 
  • Plants one hectare and produces 150 tons 
  •  Produce is sold at R8/kg after  calculating the cost of production  and profit 
  •  Produce is packaged according to  consumers' preferences 
  • Secures a contract for the next  harvest with local supermarkets  and wholesalers

2.2.1 Identify which farmer (A or B) marketed the produce successfully. (1)
2.2.2 Give a reason for the answer to QUESTION 2.2.1. (1)
2.2.3 State TWO aspects that the farmer in QUESTION 2.2.1 focused on  when developing a marketing strategy. (2) 
2.2.4 Name the marketing strategy used by FARMER B. (1) 
2.2.5 State TWO ways in which the strategy in QUESTION 2.2.4 can  benefit the farmer. (2) 

2.3 The table below shows the results of a price experiment on bags of oranges  that were sold at different prices per week. 

PRICE 

(RAND PER  BAG)

QUANTITY  

SOLD 

(BAGS OF  

ORANGES  

PER WEEK)

TOTAL  

REVENUE 

(R)

FIXED 

COST  

(R)

VARIABLE  COST  

(R)

PROFIT 

(R)

2 500 

12 500 

800 

400 

11 300

10 

1 000 

10 000 

800 

350 

8 850

15 

500 

7 500 

800 

300 

6 400

20 

300 

6 000 

800 

250 

4 950

25 

20 

1 000 

800 

200 

0

30 

15 

450 

800 

150 

–500

2.3.1 Formulate a hypothesis for the experiment above. (2) 
2.3.2 Name ONE factor that influenced the demand for oranges,  according to the data above. (1) 
2.3.3 Explain the influence of the factor in QUESTION 2.3.2. (2) 
2.3.4 Briefly explain the effect of a rising price on the profit margins,  as shown in the data above. (2)

2.4 Read and analyse the advertisement below and answer the questions that  follow. 
FREE GARBAGE

2.4.1 Identify the type of labelling in the advertisement above. (1) 
2.4.2 Give TWO reasons in the advertisement to support the answer  to QUESTION 2.4.1. (2) 
2.4.3 The advertisement promotes environmental awareness. Motivate  this statement by referring to the advertisement. (1) 
2.4.4 Name the marketing approach used to promote the product. (1) 

2.5 The schematic representation below shows the aspects of a SWOT analysis  done by an emerging farmer. 
SWOT ANALYSIS

2.5.1 Link statement A, B, C and E in the schematic representation with  the elements of a SWOT analysis. (4) 
2.5.2 Explain how the farmer may use the strengths and opportunities  in the schematic representation above to improve the farming enterprise.  (2) 

2.6 Name THREE personal characteristics of a successful entrepreneur. (3)

[35] 

QUESTION 3: PRODUCTION FACTORS 
Start this question on a NEW page. 
3.1 The table below shows the population size and available arable land in  a certain region over a period of six decades. 

YEARS 

POPULATION SIZE  (million)

ARABLE LAND  

AVAILABLE 

(million hectares)

1961 

24 

15

1971 

27 

12

1981 

30 

10

1991 

34 

8

2001 

39 

6

2011 

47 

4

3.1.1 Draw a bar graph showing the population size and the arable land  available over a period of six decades. (6) 
3.1.2 State the economic characteristic of land illustrated in the graph  in QUESTION 3.1.1. (1) 
3.1.3 Describe how the characteristic stated in QUESTION 3.1.1  influences agricultural production. (2) 
3.1.4 Suggest TWO measures a farmer can apply to improve the  productivity of land. (2) 

3.2 The table below shows conditions of employment in a farming business for  two employees (A and B). 

CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT 

EMPLOYEE A 

EMPLOYEE B

Daily rate 

R120 

R120

Hours of work per day 

12

Payment for four Sundays/public  holidays 

R960 

R800

Leave credits per three-year cycle 

30 days 

10 days

3.2.1 Identify the employee whose conditions of service are unfair. (1) 
3.2.2 Give TWO reasons for the answer to QUESTION 3.2.1 by referring  to the information in the table above. (2) 
3.2.3 Give TWO examples of labour legislation that the employee in  QUESTION 3.2.1 could use to challenge the employer. (2)

3.3 Name the method to increase labour productivity, which is represented by  EACH of the following descriptions: 

3.3.1 3.3 (1)
3.3.2 Sending tractor drivers for a basic course in mechanical  engineering (1) 
3.3.3 Providing workers with free transport between work and home (1)
3.3.4 Using a harvester to harvest a 100 ha field (1) 

3.4 

An emerging broiler and egg farmer wants to draw up a cash flow budget for  a month, opening from a zero balance. Workers' wages cost R4 000 per  week. Chicken feed costs R7 000 per week, electricity is R2 500 per week  and some other costs amount to R1 500 per week. The farmer's income  consists of the following: 

  • Eggs sold for cash to local shops is R10 000 per week.
  • Once a month broilers are sold to a slaughter house for R50 000.

3.4.1 Draw up a mini cash flow budget for ONE week. (4)
3.4.2 Determine the net cash income for ONE month. (3) 
3.4.3 Explain whether the net income of this business can be guaranteed  on the basis of its cash flow. (2) 

3.5 Name the problem of capital associated with each of the following statements: 

3.5.1 A farmer bought three tractors and two luxurious bakkies, which  are underutilised. (1) 
3.5.2 Drastic changes in the climate resulted in a drop in the expected  yield. (1) 
3.5.3 Short-term credit is used to pay labourers. (1)
3.5.4 A farmer sold a tractor bought five years ago at a lower price. (1) 

3.6 Identify the effective management principle represented by EACH of the  following statements: 

3.6.1 Deciding on the size of the farming operation and the output it will  give (1) 
3.6.2 Monitoring all aspects of production (1)

[35] 

QUESTION 4: BASIC AGRICULTURAL GENETICS 
Start this question on a NEW page. 
4.1 A purebred black-faced ram is crossed with a purebred white-faced ewe.  B represents the ram's face colour, which is dominant over the white face colour  of the ewe. 
4.1

4.1.1 Write down the genotype of parent B. (1) 
4.1.2 Indicate whether parents A and B are homozygous or  heterozygous. (1) 
4.1.3 Give a reason for the answer to QUESTION 4.1.2. (1) 
4.1.4 Identify the phenotype in the F2 generation, as represented by F,  G and H. (3) 
4.1.5 Indicate the genotypic and phenotypic ratio in the F2 generation. (2) 

4.2 The table below shows the estimated breeding value (EBV) for specified  characteristics in Bonsmara cattle and boer goats. 

SPECIES 

CHARACTERISTIC 

HERITABILITY

Bonsmara 

Birth weight 

38

 

Post-weaning weight 

30

 

Meat tenderness 

65

 

Lean meat 

38

Boer goat 

Birth weight 

35

 

Post-weaning weight 

60

 

Lean meat 

35

 

Fleece weight 

12

4.2.1 Identify ONE characteristic of EACH animal (Bonsmara cattle and  boer goats) that farmers would select for breeding. (2) 
4.2.2 Give a reason for the choice of characteristics in QUESTION 4.2.1. (2) 
4.2.3 Give TWO reasons why boer goat farmers will probably not select  birth weight, fleece weight and lean meat. (2) 

4.3

Variation refers to the differences in characteristics between members of the  same species. The differences may be caused by both external and internal  factors.

Name the environmental factor that has led to EACH of the following variations: 

4.3.1 Animals at higher altitudes have darker pigmentation than those at lower altitudes. (1) 
4.3.2 Animals are shorter than other animals with the same gene for  tallness due to a nutrient deficiency. (1) 
4.3.3 Goats kept on steeper slopes have longer and stronger legs than  goats kept on flatter slopes. (1) 
4.3.4 Herefords kept in colder regions have thicker hair than those found in  warmer regions. (1) 

4.4 

Assume that egg laying in Leghorn laying hens is controlled by three pairs  of genes. The net production of a laying hen with the genotype bbggkk  is 60 eggs per week. Each additive allele contributes five eggs to the  net production.

4.4.1 Determine the net production of a laying hen with the genotype  BbGgkk. (3) 
4.4.2 Name the genotype that will result in 90 eggs. (1)
4.4.3 Indicate the type of inheritance that controls egg laying in Leghorn laying hens. (1)

4.5 In an animal production unit the following data of heifers has been collected  for breeding purposes: 

Live mass  (kg) 

134 

135 

136 

137 

138 

139 

140 

141 

142 

143 

144 

145 

146

Number of  animals 

10 

15 

20 

30 

40 

60 

75 

65 

45 

35 

15 

10 

5

4.5.1 Give the appropriate term for the phenomenon represented by the  data above. (1) 
4.5.2 Determine the number of heifers if 12% of the total number of heifers are selected. (3) 
4.5.3 Use the data to find the mass of an average heifer. (1)
4.5.4 In a normal commercial production unit, what would a farmer do with: 

(a) Heifers with the highest live mass (1) 
(b) Heifers with the lowest live mass (1) 

4.6 The illustration below shows a technique used by farmers to genetically  modify tomatoes.  

4.6.1 Identify the technique above. (1) 
4.6.2 State TWO advantages of the technique in QUESTION 4.6.1 for the  farmer. (2) 
4.6.3 Suggest TWO socio-economic implications that plants produced from  the technique in QUESTION 4.6.1 and other related techniques have  for the farmer. (2)

[35] 
TOTAL SECTION B: 105 
GRAND TOTAL: 150

Last modified on Tuesday, 15 June 2021 07:27