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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES PAPER 2 GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2016

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
PAPER TWO (P2)
GRADE 12 
NSC EXAM PAPERS AND MEMOS
NOVEMBER 2016

MEMORANDUM

SECTION A
QUESTION 1 
1.1

1.1.1 A ✔✔ 
1.1.2 D ✔✔ 
1.1.3 B ✔✔ 
1.1.4 D ✔✔ 
1.1.5 B ✔✔ 
1.1.6 D ✔✔ 
1.1.7 B ✔✔ 
1.1.8 C ✔✔ 
1.1.9  A ✔✔ 
1.1.10 C ✔✔ (10 x 2) (20) 

1.2

1.2.1 E ✔✔ 
1.2.2 G ✔✔ 
1.2.3 J ✔✔ 
1.2.4 B ✔✔ 
1.2.5 C ✔✔ (5 x 2) (10) 

1.3

1.3.1 Elasticity ✔✔ 
1.3.2 Cash flow ✔✔ 
1.3.3 Breeding value ✔✔ 
1.3.4 Epistasis ✔✔ 
1.3.5 Inbreeding depression ✔✔ (5 x 2) (10) 

1.4

1.4.1 Processing ✔ 
1.4.2  Productivity ✔ 
1.4.3  Lipofection ✔ 
1.4.4  Co-dominance ✔ 
1.4.5  Selection ✔ (5 x 1) (5) 

TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B 
QUESTION 2: AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 
2.1 Scenario on marketing  

2.1.1 Identification of the marketing functions 

    1.   Transportation ✔ (1)
    2. Storage ✔ (1) 

2.1.2 Economic term for each of the following statements 

    1. Packaging ✔ (1)
    2. Cold storage/refrigeration ✔ (1)
    3. Processing/value adding ✔ (1) 

2.1.3 TWO advantages of processing agricultural products 

    • Prevents spoilage/perishability/increases shelf-life of products ✔
    • The product is available throughout the year ✔
    • Improves food safety by heating to sufficient temperatures ✔
    • Easy to transport ✔
    • Easy storage ✔
    • Adds value to farm products/increases the value of products/  higher income for the farmer ✔
    • It provides job opportunities ✔
    • Reduces wastage of excess produce ✔
    • It is a way of overcoming over-supply of products ✔
    • It allows for easier packing and handling of products/ simplification of products ✔ (Any 2) (2)

2.2 Case study on production of peppers 

2.2.1 Farmer who marketed with success  
Farmer B ✔ (1) 
2.2.2 Reason  

    • Farmer B sold the produce for a higher price/R8/kg ✔ 
    • The farmer identified/researched consumer needs and therefore  sold the produce at a profit ✔
    • Farmer worked the costs and is selling at a profit ✔ 
    • Secured future contracts ✔
    • No use of a middle man ✔ 
    • Packaging according to consumer needs/preference ✔ (Any 1) (1) 

2.2.3 TWO aspects to develop marketing strategy 

    • Product ✔
    • Consumer preference/demand ✔
    • Promotion ✔
    • Pricing ✔
    • Placement/distribution ✔ (Any 2) (2)

2.2.4 Marketing strategy used by Farmer B 

    • Research ✔
    • Marketing mix ✔ (Any 1) (1) 

2.2.5 TWO benefits of the marketing strategy to the farmer 

    • Sales/market/price are guaranteed ✔
    • No middleman/intermediary ✔ 
    • Secured a contract for the next season ✔ 
    • Promotion of products ✔ (Any 2) (2)

2.3 Price experiment of oranges 

2.3.1 Hypothesis 

    • The price of oranges will influence ✔ the demand thereof ✔
      OR
    • A fall in the price of oranges ✔ will lead to a high demand/profit  ✔ 
      OR
    • An increase in the price of oranges ✔ will lead to a lower  demand/profit/high loss ✔
      OR
    • Sales of oranges will decrease ✔ with a price increase ✔
    • Sales of oranges will increase ✔ with a price decrease ✔ (2) 

2.3.2 Factor that influenced the demand 

    • Price ✔ (1) 

2.3.3 Explanation of the factor influencing demand 

    • A fall in price of oranges ✔leads to an increase in demand ✔
      OR
    • A rise in price of oranges ✔ leads to a decline/decrease in  demand ✔ (2) 

2.3.4 Impact of a higher price on profit margins 
The increase in price ✔ leads to decrease in profit ✔ (2)

2.4 Analysing the advert 

2.4.1 The type of labelling 
Eco/green labelling ✔ (1) 
2.4.2 TWO reasons for the labelling 

    • Packed in recyclable material/biodegradable ✔
    • Organically produced ✔ (2) 

2.4.3 Justification for environmental friendliness 

    • Packaging on recyclable bags/materials ✔
    • Organically produced ✔ (Any 1) (1) 

2.4.4 Marketing approach to promote the product 
Sustainable agricultural marketing/green/eco friendly marketing ✔ (1)

2.5 SWOT Analysis 

2.5.1 Linking statements with SWOT analysis 

    • A - Strength ✔ (1)
    • B - Opportunity ✔ (1)
    • C - Weakness ✔ (1)
    • E - Threat ✔ (1) 

2.5.2 How strengths/opportunities can improve the farming  enterprise 

    • The farmer can take an advantage of a land with access to  irrigation/assistance of extension officer/financial assistance  from Land bank (strength) ✔ 
    • Demand for baby carrot (opportunity) ✔ (2) 

2.6 THREE personal characteristics of a successful entrepreneur

  • Leadership ✔ 
  • Motivation ✔ 
  • Self confidence ✔ 
  • Commitment ✔ 
  • Hard working/energetic ✔ 
  • Perseverance ✔ 
  • Market driven ✔ 
  • Innovative/creativity ✔ 
  • Positive attitude ✔ 
  • Risk taking ✔ 
  • Dynamic/flexibility ✔ 
  • Success driven ✔  
  • Responsibility ✔ 
  • Communication ✔  
  • Visionary/goal orientated ✔ (Any 3) (3)

[35]

QUESTION 3: PRODUCTION FACTORS 
3.1 Land as a production factor 

3.1.1 Bar graph on population size and area of land over time 
3.1 MEMO
Criteria/rubric/marking guidelines 

    • Correct heading ✔
    • Y-axis: Correctly calibrated and labelled  (population size and available arable land) ✔
    • X-axis: Correctly calibrated and labelled (years) ✔
    • Correct units (millions and hectares) ✔
    • Bar graph ✔
    • All criteria presented correctly ✔ (6) 

3.1.2 The economic characteristic of land 
Land for agricultural purposes is limited/limitedness ✔ (1) 

3.1.3 The impact of the limitedness of land on production  

Increasing population is putting more pressure on the limited land ✔
resulting in a decrease in production ✔ 
OR 
The higher the population size ✔ 
The lesser the arable land/production ✔  
OR 
The lower the population size ✔the more the arable land/production✔  
OR 
The more the arable land ✔ the more the production ✔  
OR 
The lower the arable land ✔ the less the production ✔ (2)

3.1.4 TWO measures to improve productivity of land  

    • Development of disease-resistant cultivars and breeds ✔
    • Knowledge on the wise use of fertilisers/pesticides ✔
    • Appropriate use of land/better care of agricultural land ✔
    • Adapting to/use of scientific methods/use of technology to  improve yields ✔ 
    • Increased knowledge on agricultural education/precision  farming ✔ 
    • Consolidation of uneconomic units ✔ 
    • Mechanisation ✔ 
    • Diversification ✔ 
    • Adapting to appropriate policies/legislation ✔ 
    • Water provision/management ✔ (Any 2) (2)

3.2 Labour contract 

3.2.1 Employee with unfair conditions of service 
Employee B ✔ (1) 
3.2.2 Justification 

    • Long working hours/12 hours of work per day ✔
    • Insufficient payment for work on Sunday/public holiday/R200  per day instead of R240 ✔
    • Leave days not according to stipulation of legislation/10 days  leave in 3 years ✔ (Any 2) (2) 

3.2.3 TWO labour legislation that could be used by employee 

    • Labour Relations Act ✔
    • Basic Conditions of Employment Act ✔ (2)

3.3 Methods to increase labour productivity 

3.3.1 Physical planning of infrastructure/physical farm planning ✔ (1)
3.3.2 Training/skills development ✔ (1)
3.3.3 Adequate living/environmental conditions ✔ (1)
3.3.4 Mechanisation ✔ (1)

3.4 Cash flow budget statement 

3.4.1 Mini cash flow budget 

Costs incurred 

Amount

Wages 

R4 000

Chicken feed 

R7 000 ✔

Electricity 

R2 500

Other costs 

R1 500

Total costs 

R15 000 ✔

   

Income

 

Eggs/broilers sold/week 

R10 000/R60 000 ✔

Net cash/week 

– R5 000/R45 000 ✔ 

(4) 

3.4.2 Net cash income for the month 

    • Egg income per week + broiler income per month – costs per  month 
    • R10 000 x 4) ✔ + R50 000 = R90 000 – (R15 000 x 4) ✔
      = R30 000 ✔ (3) 

3.4.3 Business net worth based on the weekly cash flow 

    • Business cash flow per week is negative/positive (– R5000/R45 000) ✔
    • Cash flow cannot be used to determine the net worth or  income of a business/cash flow maybe restricted at a particular  time even when business is profitable ✔ (2) 

3.5 Problem associated with capital 

3.5.1 Over- capitalisation ✔ (1)
3.5.2 Risk factor/uncertainty ✔ (1)
3.5.3 Scarcity of capital/interest rates ✔ (1)
3.5.4 Depreciation ✔ (1)

3.6 Management principle 

3.6.1 Planning/decision making ✔ (1)
3.6.2 Control ✔ (1)

[35]

QUESTION 4: BASIC AGRICULTURAL GENETICS 
4.1 Crossing of a black-faced ram and white-faced ewe 

4.1.1 Genotype of parent B 
bb ✔ (1) 
4.1.2 Indication whether parents are homozygous or heterozygous
Homozygous ✔ (1) 
4.1.3 Reason 
Parents have same alleles for a gene/pure bred ✔ (1)
4.1.4 Identification of the phenotype in the F2 generation 

    • F: black-faced ✔ (1)
    • G: black-faced ✔ (1)
    • H: white-faced ✔ (1) 

4.1.5 Indication of the genotypic and phenotypic ratio in F2 generation 

    • Genotypic ratio 1:2:1 ✔ (1)
    • Phenotypic ratio 3:1/3 black:1 white ✔ (1) 

4.2 Estimated breeding values 

4.2.1 Characteristic to select for in Bonsmara and Boer goat  
Bonsmara - Meat tenderness ✔ 
Boer Goat - Post weaning weight ✔ (2) 

4.2.2 Justification 
The heritability of both characteristics is greater than 50%/ controlled more by genes ✔✔ (2) 

4.2.3 TWO reasons for not selecting for birth, fleece and lean meat

    • Heritability is less than 50% ✔
    • Characteristics will be more influenced by the environment/ less controlled by genes ✔ (2) 

4.3 Indication of the environmental factors causing variation 

4.3.1 Light intensity/temperature/climate ✔ (1)
4.3.2 Feeding/nutrition ✔ (1)
4.3.3 Topography/relief/terrain ✔ (1)
4.3.4 Climate/low temperature ✔ (1)

4.4 Polygenic inheritance 

4.4.1 Production of leghorn with BbGgkk genes 

    • B = 5 eggs ✔
    • G = 5 eggs ✔
    • 5 + 5 + 60 = 70 eggs ✔ (3) 

4.4.2 Genotypes resulting in 90 eggs 
BBGGKK ✔ (1) 

4.4.3 Type of inheritance 
Polygenic/quantitative ✔ (1)

4.5 Breeding heifers 

4.5.1 Appropriate term for the phenomena represented by the data 
Continuous variation/normal distribution/biometrics ✔ (1) 
4.5.2 Number of heifers if 12% is selected 
Total :10+15+20+30+40+60+75+65+45+35+15+10+5 = 425 ✔
12% (0,12) x 425 ✔ 
= 51 heifers ✔ (3) 
4.5.3 Mass of the average animals 
Average mass = 140 kg ✔ (1) 
4.5.4 Farmer's intention  

    1. Heifers with highest live mass 
       Selection for breeding purposes ✔ (1)
    2. Heifers with lowest live mass
      Cull/slaughter/sell ✔ (1) 

4.6 Techniques to genetically modify tomatoes 

4.6.1 Technique 
Genetic modification/engineering/manipulation/micro-injection ✔ (1) 

4.6.2 TWO advantages of GM/micro-injection to the farmer

    • Better yield/harvesting ✔
    • Increased shelf life/storage ✔
    • Improved quality/increased nutritional value/value adding ✔
    • Increased resistance to diseases/insects/pests ✔ 
    • Resistance to harsh conditions/drought ✔ (Any 2) (2)

4.6.3 TWO socio-economic effects of food from genetically modified  plants to the farmer 

    • Small scale and poor farmers cannot afford GM crops/GM  crops are expensive ✔
    • A farmer is not allowed to re-use seeds from GM crops ✔
    • The farmer may not use some seeds as they are sterile ✔
    • Some consumers will not buy from the farmer due to ethical  concerns ✔
    • It encourages monopoly which does not allow small  companies to develop/favours the producers and encourages  exploitation of emerging farmers ✔ (Any 2) (2)

[35] 
TOTAL SECTION B: 105 
GRAND TOTAL: 150

Last modified on Tuesday, 15 June 2021 07:27