Thursday, 17 June 2021 07:31


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  • This memorandum is intended as a guide for markers.
  • It is by no means prescriptive or exhaustive.
  • Candidates' responses should be considered on merit.
  • Answers should be assessed holistically and points awarded where applicable in terms of decisions taken at the standardisation meeting.
  • The memorandum will be discussed before the commencement of marking.

Marking the comprehension:

  • Because the focus is on understanding, incorrect spelling and language errors in responses should not be penalised unless such errors change the meaning. (Errors must still be indicated.)
  • If a candidate uses words from a language other than the one being examined, disregard those words, and if the answer still makes sense, do not penalise. However, if a word from another language is used in a text and required in an answer, this will be acceptable.
  • For open-ended questions, no marks should be awarded for YES/NO or I AGREE/I DISAGREE. The reason/substantiation/motivation/justification is what should be considered.
  • No marks should be awarded for TRUE/FALSE or FACT/OPINION. The reason/substantiation/motivation/justification is what should be considered.
  • When one-word answers are required and the candidate gives a whole sentence, mark correct provided that the correct word is underlined/highlighted.
  • When two/three facts/points are required and a range is given, mark only the first two/three.
  • Accept dialectal variations.
  • For multiple-choice questions, accept BOTH the letter corresponding with the correct answer AND/OR the answer written out in full.

1.1 The term 'youth' is hard to define: each region and culture has a unique perspective on it./The status of people of various chronological ages differs from culture to culture.
[Award only 1 mark for lifting an appropriate phrase/clause.] (2)
1.2 Poverty has an adverse effect on the youth's struggle./The wealthy benefit from a myriad of opportunities.
[Award full marks for cogent, alternative responses.] (2)
1.3 They have to become agents of change, one effect of which is that the existing problems do not affect the next generation. (2)
1.4 The statistics provided by the writer shock the reader into realising the unnecessary loss of life through violence. The number of deaths has deprived many of the opportunity to contribute positively to society.
The statistics are used as a manipulative device. (Award only 1 mark.)
They give credibility to the writer's argument. (Award only 1 mark.) (2)
1.5The writer wishes to appeal to the reader on an emotional level, highlighting the hopelessness of the situation in which the youth find themselves. It is an anecdotal account of personal hopelessness.
[Award 2 marks for TWO points.] (2)
1.6 In paragraph 5, the writer states that the youth in developing nations can progress economically only if they leave their countries of origin. However, in paragraph 6, he speaks of how the media have created a global youth culture. The impact of this contrast is that the youth of developing countries are aware of opportunities but are unable to access them. This causes frustration among them.
[Award 1 mark for the reference to contrast and 2 marks for a comment on impact.] (3)
1.7 YES
The writer maintains that young people have no escape from the uncertainty of their situation. The lack of opportunities drives the youth toward undesirable activities in search of validation, 'a display of their wish to become more powerful'. Their lives are thus bleak and hopeless.
[If the candidate provides merely a definition of, 'in limbo', award only 1 mark.]
NO/Mixed responses
[Consider cogent responses.] (3)
1.8 The argument that education is essential for economic success is refuted by the fact that many skilled people are unemployed. The youth find themselves in a dilemma as education does not guarantee their success even though it is a prerequisite for employment. Those who are educated but unemployed are also alienated.
[Award 3 marks only if a critical comment is given.] (3)
1.9 YES
It indicates that the conversation has not ended and it creates more opportunities to engage the youth in issues affecting them.
He has already addressed the content of the rhetorical question in the preceding paragraphs, therefore it should have served as an introduction to the topic, 'Youth in Crisis'.
[Award 3 marks for any two ideas well discussed OR identification of three ideas.] (3)
1.10 C: apathetic (1)
1.11 Although the characters are in an academic setting and preparing themselves for the future, they show no inclination or temperament to contribute to the improvement of society. They have disengaged, as can be seen in the speech bubble and the newspaper headline.
[Award 1 mark for each of the ironically opposed points/ideas; a third mark for indication of irony, even if only a word such as 'however' or 'but'.] (3)
1.12 TEXT A
Text A has a greater impact because it addresses a wide array of issues pertaining to youth in crisis. Firstly, youth is viewed from a global perspective, which underlines the notion that the challenges mentioned are universal. The objective style of the passage drives home the gravity of issues faced by the youth. Text A addresses serious topics such as youth unemployment, HIV/AIDS, lack of opportunities and violence. Every young person, irrespective of his/her cultural/geographical background, could identify with the aforementioned.
Text B is a satirical representation of youth apathy toward serious issues. The newspaper headline ('ONLY 1 IN 4 YOUNG PEOPLE TO VOTE?') underscores the fact that young people choose not to be involved in things that could change the course of their lives. The light-hearted approach is more appealing to the youth.
[Credit cogent alternative responses.]
[Candidates may make reference to only one OR both texts.] (4)

Use the following main points that the candidate should include in the summary as a guideline.
Any 7 valid points in paragraph-form are to be credited.
(Sentences and/or sentence fragments must be coherent.)

 1 'gestures are probably helping you express your thoughts more effectively'  1 Gestures are effective tools of communication. 
 2  'people who 'talk' with their hands tend to be viewed as warm, agreeable and energetic'  2 People who use hand gestures are more approachable and energetic. 
 3 'Hand gestures help us take what's in our mind and make it intelligible to others.'   3 Hand gestures help to express our thoughts clearly. 
 4 'can really power up your thinking'   4 Gestures stimulate cognitive processes. 
 5 'help people form clearer thoughts, speak in tighter sentences and use more declarative language'   5 When one uses gestures, one's language use is more concise and expressive. 
 6 'gather information from others' body language'   6 Body language is informative. 
 7 'often underscore the important points someone is making'   7 Gestures facilitate the interpretation of what others consciously or unconsciously convey. 
 8 'can reveal information that may be absent in our speech'  8 Hand motions reveal facts that are not always verbally communicated.
 9 'Gesture reveals what we know.' 'It also reveals what we don't know.'  9 Gesturing shows one's knowledge.
 10 'will later develop a strong vocabulary, as well as skills related to sentence structure and storytelling'  10 Hand motions are related to language development.
 11 'body language is crucial in helping communicate our emotions and motivations to others.'  11 Hand gestures convey emotions and motivations.

NOTE: What follows is merely an example. It is not prescriptive and must be used very carefully.

Gestures are effective communication tools and help to express our thoughts clearly. Gestures stimulate cognitive processes; when one uses gestures, one's language use is more concise and expressive. Furthermore, body language facilitates the interpretation of what others consciously or unconsciously convey. Moreover, gesturing shows one's knowledge or lack thereof, thus clarifying messages. Lastly, hand motions reveal facts that are not always verbally communicated and these motions are related to the development of vocabulary, sentence structure and storytelling. (77 words)

Marking the summary:
The summary should be marked as follows:

  • Mark allocation:
    • 7 marks for 7 points (1 mark per main point)
    • 3 marks for language
    • Total marks: 10
  • Distribution of language marks when candidate has not quoted verbatim:
    • 1–3 points correct: award 1 mark
    • 4–5 points correct: award 2 marks
    • 6–7 points correct: award 3 marks
  • Distribution of language marks when candidate has quoted verbatim:
    • 6–7 quotations: award no language mark
    • 1–5 quotations: award 1 language mark


  • Format:
    Even if the summary is presented in the incorrect format, it must be assessed.
  • Word Count:
    • Do not deduct any marks if the candidate fails to indicate the number of words used or if the number of words used is indicated incorrectly.
    • If the word limit is exceeded, read up to the last sentence above the stipulated upper limit and ignore the rest of the summary.
    • Summaries that are short but contain all the required main points should notbe penalised.


Marking SECTION C:

  • Spelling:
    • One-word answers must be marked correct even if the spelling is incorrect, unless the error changes the meaning of the word.
    • In full-sentence answers, incorrect spelling should be penalised if the error is in the language structure being tested.
    • Where an abbreviation is tested, the answer must be punctuated correctly.
  • Sentence structures must be grammatically correct and given in full sentences/as per instruction.
  • For multiple-choice questions, accept BOTH the letter corresponding to the correct answer AND/OR the answer written out in full as correct.

3.2 The text reveals that an alarming number of accidents is caused by drivers who use their cell phones while driving. This is reinforced by the visual of a driver's cell phone's obscuring his view of the child on the road. Irresponsible cell phone use inevitably leads to road accidents. (3)
3.3 The repetition of the imperative 'STOP' highlights imminent danger./The advertiser also uses sound devices to emphasise the message of texting and driving – texts lead to wrecks.
[Award no more than 1 mark if the candidate merely identifies a list of techniques.]
[Award 2 marks for ONE point, well discussed.] (2)
3.4 The advertiser uses the image of an irresponsible driver who is texting while driving. The text is strategically placed to obscure the driver's face, which reinforces the idea that texting while driving is hazardous. A clear warning is conveyed.
[Credit literal and/or figurative responses.]
[Credit cogent, alternative and/or mixed responses.] (3)
3.1 BMW is sponsoring the advertisement. As part of its social responsibility, BMW wants to minimise the number of accidents caused by drivers who use cell phones.
BMW wishes to promote its brand and promote sales.
[Award 2 marks for any TWO points or ONE point, well developed.] (2)

4.1 The officer is elated/surprised/in disbelief when he learns that the ATM is in a working order./He ignores the seriousness of the woman's situation. (2)
4.2 The officer's absence indicates disregard for the woman's complaint as well as dereliction of duty. The cartoonist effectively satirises the manner in which officials conduct themselves. Their personal interests take priority over the needs of the public. That the officer and his colleagues show excitement about an unrelated matter indicates a collective indifference to crime.
[Credit responses that make reference to the ineffectiveness of the banking system.]
[Award 3 marks for TWO well-expressed points.] (3)
4.3 There is an absence of dialogue in frame 2. It draws attention to/emphasises Garfield's reactions to Jon./It focuses on Garfield's self-scrutiny./It forces the reader to focus on Garfield's reaction.
There is no frame. The absence of a frame suggests the passing of time/length of time Garfield focuses on himself.
[Award 1 mark for identification of the technique and 1 mark for its relevant discussion.] (2)
4.4 The humour is based on irony. It is ironic that the cat's hard look at himself breeds more vanity instead of self-criticism. Garfield interprets the man's (Jon's) advice literally by examining himself in the mirror. It is an unexpected response. Ironically, it is not the desired outcome (engaging in introspection). The cat has the upper hand and silences the man. The man resumes his pained look in frame 3. Garfield is initially morose/arrogant/bored; however, he starts to enjoy himself when he narcissistically/egotistically stares at his image in the mirror.
[Award a maximum of 2 marks if a candidate discusses only one element.]
[Award 3 marks only if candidate has made reference to both visual and verbal elements.] (3)

5.1 constantly/continually/continuously/always/incessantly/non-stop
[Accept other suitable synonyms.] (1)
5.2 Parenthesis/Dashes indicate that additional information is included. (1)
5.3 They crawl from the venue on all fours, uncontrollably weeping all the way home.
They crawled from the venue on all fours, and wept uncontrollably all the way home.
Crawling from the venue on all fours, they wept uncontrollably all the way home.
Crawling from the venue on all fours, they were weeping uncontrollably all the way home.
[Accept alternative responses – introducing a subject and a finite verb.] (1)
5.4 experience (1)
5.5 were – was (line 8)/sizeable percentages of the audience were... ('a' must be omitted.) (1)
5.6 The hyperbole has been ramped up (by us). (1)
5.7 praise/approval (1)
5.8 If your face leaks that easily (1)
5.9 pretentious/pretended (1)
5.10 'it' could refer to 'obsession', 'pop music' or 'performance'.
[Accept reference to any TWO options.] (1)


Last modified on Thursday, 17 June 2021 09:31