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VISUAL ARTS GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2016

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VISUAL ARTS
GRADE 12 
NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS
NOVEMBER 2016

INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 
Read the following instructions carefully before commencing marking: 

  1. This memorandum consists of EIGHT answers. Candidates had to answer  any FIVE questions for a total of 100 marks. 
  2. It is MOST IMPORTANT that allowance is made for the candidates in many  instances:
    • Candidates must be given credit for providing their own opinions and  ideas in answers. 
    • Credit must be given for lateral thinking. 
    • Arguments and statements must be well-reasoned and qualified with  reference to specific factors.
  3. Questions and subsections must be numbered clearly and correctly.
    Bullets usually act as guidelines to help structure candidates' answers.
  4. Information and artworks discussed in one answer must not be credited if repeated in other answers, but artworks may be cross-referenced.
  5. Where applicable, candidates must name the artist and title of each artwork. 
    Only ONE mark is allocated for the correct artist and title of work.
  6. Where applicable, candidates may discuss both two- and three-dimensional artworks in any answer. 
  7. Remember that many candidates will be discussing these examples, never having seen them before. Markers therefore cannot expect factual,  academic information. They should draw upon their own experiences,  cultures and interpretations of the artworks, within the context of the  question. Therefore, markers need to be open-minded and flexible in the  marking process. 

GENERAL INFORMATION FOR MARKERS 

  • This memorandum is to serve as a guideline for markers as well as a teaching  tool. Therefore, the memorandum for certain questions is in greater depth, so that the information may be used as learning material. Other parts of the memorandum  may merely be a suggested guideline.  
  • NOTE: Markers are encouraged to reward candidates for what they know, rather  than penalise them for what they don't know. 
  • Although the information for the questions is given in point form, candidates must  use an essay/paragraph format discussing their information in a holistic manner. 
  • Candidates must answer all the questions in FULL SENTENCES or  PARAGRAPHS, according to the requirements of each question. Answers in point form cannot receive full marks. Full marks cannot be given if the title or artist is  incorrect. 
  • Markers must refer to the Visual Arts CAPS document page 45 for a guideline to  assess the levels of achievement.

Assessing candidates' ability to analyse and respond to examples of visual culture

ACHIEVEMENT  

RATING CODE 

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: VISUAL CULTURE STUDIES ✔


Outstanding 
80–100%

  • Demonstrates exceptional ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts.
  • Shows outstanding ability in the use of appropriate Visual Arts  terminology. 
  • Demonstrates extremely well-developed writing and research skills in the  study of art. 
  • Shows exceptional insight and understanding and uses divergent  approaches. 


Meritorious 
70–79%

  • Demonstrates a well-developed ability to respond to and analyse  artworks in relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts. 
  • Shows excellent ability in the use of appropriate Visual Arts terminology.
  • Demonstrates highly developed writing and research skills in the study of  art. 
  • Shows excellent insight and understanding.


Substantial 
60–69%

  • Demonstrates substantial ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts.
  • Shows substantial competence in the use of appropriate Visual Arts  terminology. 
  • Demonstrates well-developed writing and research skills in the study of  art. 
  • Shows a good level of insight and understanding.


Moderate 
50–59%

  • Demonstrates moderate ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts. 
  • Shows moderate competence in the use of appropriate Visual Arts  terminology. 
  • Demonstrates competent writing and research skills in the study of art. 
  • Shows a fair level of insight and understanding. 


Adequate 
40–49%

  • Demonstrates adequate ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts. 
  • Shows adequate competence in the use of appropriate Visual Arts  terminology. 
  • Demonstrates adequate writing and research skills in the study of art.
  • Shows an adequate level of insight and understanding.


Elementary 
30–39%

  • Demonstrates only basic ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts. 
  • Shows little ability in the use of appropriate Visual Arts terminology. 
  • Demonstrates basic writing and research skills in the study of art. 
  • Shows an elementary level of insight and understanding. 


Not achieved 
0–29%

  • Demonstrates little or no ability to respond to and analyse artworks in  relation to their cultural, social, political and historical contexts.
  • Shows extremely limited ability in the use of appropriate Visual Arts  terminology. 
  • Demonstrates limited writing and research skills in the study of art.
  • Shows little or no understanding or insight. 

CANDIDATES MUST ANSWER ANY FIVE QUESTIONS. 

NOTE: 
The mark allocation below must be followed when the candidate has discussed only  ONE artwork/artist, instead of TWO. 

6 marks (max. 3) 
8 marks (max. 5) 
10 marks (max. 6) 
12 marks (max. 7) 
14 marks (max. 8) 
20 marks (max. 12) 

ONE mark must be deducted if the candidate does not make a comparison.

Due to the colour differences of the question papers from die different provinces, the  provinces have to adapt the marking guidelines for interpretation. 

MEMORANDUM

QUESTION 1: THE VOICE OF EMERGING ARTISTS 

The works of Peter Clarke and Kate Gottgens portray people at leisure.

1.1 Candidates must compare the artworks in FIGURE 1a and FIGURE 1b by  considering the following: 

  • Colour and line  

FIGURE 1a: Peter Clarke, Sleepers on The Grass, watercolour, 1967.  

The artwork consists of cool hues of greens and blues with hints of red and  orange. The dark linear clouds pierce areas of blue and the figures echo  shades of reds and oranges. The landscape consists of facets of green hues.  Strong angular and dark outlines. 

FIGURE 1b: Kate Gottgens, Summertime, oil on canvas, 2015. 

This artwork consists of warm hues of yellow and grey with undertones of  violet, black, orange and red. The subdued painting is dominated by muted  colours, namely reds, oranges and yellows. The artist makes use of line to  define/outline various forms and objects, such as the female lying on the  grass and the chair. The trays in the foreground create diagonal lines and  lead the viewers' eye to move to the figure of the girl who is the focal point.  Light greenish outlines on a darker greyish figure of the girl. 
Both works have predominantly green tones. 

  • Balance 

FIGURE 1a: The two sides of the composition are not the same in size or  shape. The figures in the foreground are larger than the ones in the  background, which creates perspective. The painting is divided into two  unequal parts.
FIGURE 1b: The placing of the girl divides the picture plane into a foreground  and background. The placing of the trays at the bottom and the folding chair  in the background add balance.  
Both works have asymmetrical balance. Works are visually balanced.

  • Composition 

FIGURE 1a: The diagonal composition portrays figures that seem to be  perched on an angular hill from which they might fall at the slightest breeze.  The ground below them does not seem to support their bodies, but rather  leaps towards the viewer, defying notions of space. Portrait format. Red figure  is the focal point. 
FIGURE 1b: The artwork is a snapshot view of a girl lying on her stomach on  the grass in the centre of the composition. She takes up most of the  composition and is placed more to the left, allowing the viewer to take in the  rest of the composition gradually. A folding chair is placed in the centre top  part of the composition. The top of the chair is cut off by the edge of the  artwork. Landscape format. Both works have an open composition with  figures and other items extending beyond the frame of the painting. 

  • Style 

FIGURE 1a: The artwork is stylised and simplified in block-like facets  reminding of Cubism. Cartoon like, African influence with angular woodcut  type of lines and bright colours. Vertical divisionism. 
FIGURE 1b: This is a figurative artwork capturing a moment in time. Short  brushstrokes and dappled colour and light are used. Impressionism, snap  shot moment. Horizontal composition. 

  • Possible messages/meanings 

FIGURE 1a: The figures are sleeping and resting on the grass. Sleeping  because they are working hard. The figures are barefoot which could suggest  that they are homeless. 
FIGURE 1b: Gottgens work from old, faded family photos that relate to  memories faded into featureless faces. It captures a bygone time/era. This is  a moment in time that depicts a girl relaxing outdoors on a warm day. She is  wearing a bathing costume; there are teacups and saucers, serving trays and  a chair around her, which indicates she may not be alone. Girl at leisure  relaxing outside on a summer day (holiday mood). Ghostlike feeling. 

(ONE mark must be deducted if the candidate does not make a  comparison.) 
Only ONE image discussed or no comparison Max 6/8  
If only ONE artist with works MAX 7/8 (8)

1.2 Candidates must interpret the work of any TWO artists they have studied,  who comment on his/her surroundings. 
They must include the following in their answer: 

  • Social/Cultural influences 
  • Media and technique 
  • Style 
  • Possible messages/meanings (12) [20] 

QUESTION 2: SOUTH AFRICAN ARTISTS INFLUENCED BY AFRICAN AND/OR  INDIGENOUS ART FORMS 

 The South African painter, Simon Stone, combines in his work Domestic Rain influences from modern styles such as Surrealism, Pop Art and South African  indigenous art.  


2.1 Candidates must interpret the artwork in FIGURE 2 by referring to the  following: (the print quality results in the meticulous detail being unclear). 

  • Line and colour 

The artist uses neutral colours in the lower part of the painting, i.e. shades  and tints of brown. The middle ground consists of a suburb where the roofs  and houses are painted in red/brown and white. The top part of the painting  consists of a blue sky with floating objects painted predominantly in grey,  black, yellow and white. There are hints of red, yellow and orange in the  funnel, magazine, lipstick and spray bottle. Linear, horizontal line dividing the artwork in three parts.  

  • Style and technique 

The artist adopts a photorealistic/realistic style as seen in the meticulous  detail. The painting has a surrealistic feel, as it is layered with complex  meanings and motifs. It has a juxtaposition of diverse elements. 

  • The artist divides his composition into three distinct parts.  Candidates have to describe and discuss the use of imagery in  EACH of the three parts and their possible messages/meanings. 

Stone juxtaposes unrelated objects within his landscape.The sky comprises modern everyday consumer objects representing rain as they are falling from  the sky. These objects are representative of modern-day materialism. In the  middle part of the picture a developed suburb represents modern-day living  which would not have been around during the Khoi/San times. 
The objects include a stove, lipstick, rubber tyre, jug, a water level, funnel,  radio, a magazine, etc. Khoi/San paintings are depicted in the lower part of  the painting. The artwork combines a flashback of South African symbols as  seen in the Khoi/San drawings. Stone contrasts the values of  pre-colonial cultures with those of contemporary society, who are preoccupied  with the acquisition of material goods. 
In the lower part of Domestic Rain, a huge rock face is depicted with  Khoi/San paintings of hunters pursuing antelope. An interesting feature of this  work is the open book superimposed over the Khoi/San paintings. Stone  comments on the supreme power of money in contemporary society,  contrasting this with Khoi/San culture, where the idea of money was non existent. Historic timeline of societies layers over each other in a 'palimpsest'  way like the San did in their rock art. Ancient, buried, historic symbols  juxtaposed with modern materialistic 'symbols'. Pollution, culture, history,  roots, spiritual, heritage. Archaeology, Saartjie Baartman. (8) 

2.2 Candidates must discuss ONE artwork by any TWO artists whose work  expresses their African identity due to the influences of indigenous African  art forms. 
Candidates must use the following guidelines: 

  • The influences of indigenous African art forms and symbols 
  • Style and technique 
  • Possible messages/meanings (12) [20] 

Candidates must refer to African Identity which means that artists like  Picasso, Gauguin and German expressionists are NOT relevant and  cannot be accepted.

QUESTION 3: SOCIOPOLITICAL ART, INCLUDING RESISTANCE ART OF THE  1970s AND 1980s 

In his Letters of Home Sfiso Ka-Mkame reflects on current sociopolitical issues in  South Africa.

FIGURE 3: Sfiso Ka-Mkame, Letters of Home, oil pastel on paper, 2012–2014. 

3.1

  • How do candidates react to the title of this work? Candidates should  substantiate their personal social response. 
  • Candidates must discuss THREE of the issues addressed in this work by  referring to the following:
    • Choice of image(s) 

The narrative artwork depicts political conflict, daily struggle, violence,  suffering/hardships and compassion. The violence is illustrated in the  image of the Marikana massacre, police raids, rhino poaching and an  outrageous image of xenophobia of burning bodies in a street.  
Images of daily struggle and daily lives are seen in the adults walking and  working in the fields and the children playing outside. Other imagery  ranges from houses, a beggar, a mother and her two children who  appear to be crying, women hanging up washing, protests, school  children visiting an old person and a group of people placed in front of an  Aids awareness backdrop. The artist wants us to be aware of the  atrocities and violence that we have become accustomed to over the past  years. The African symbols are nostalgic. 

    • Colour 

Dense layers of colour have been applied using oil pastels. Patterns were  scratched into the pastel work. The bright colour consists of mainly  primary and secondary colours. Grey was used in some of the images,  while white was used in the posters, smoke and clothing of the figures.  The colours red, orange, yellow and green are dominant in the  composition. Collage effect/palimpsest 

    • Composition 

The square format consists of many smaller oil pastel pieces that have  been combined to form one final artwork. The artwork reminds us of a  patchwork or a photographic record of the events that have been  combined to create a final artwork. The size of the pastel pieces range in  size. (10) 

3.2 Candidates must compare how any TWO artists have expressed past/current  sociopolitical issues in their work. (10) [20]

(ONE mark must be deducted if the candidate does not make a  comparison.) 

QUESTION 4: ART, CRAFT AND SPIRITUAL WORKS MAINLY FROM RURAL  SOUTH AFRICA 

Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper inspired both Marisol Escobar, an artist based in  the United Kingdom, and Dominic Lukandwa, a Ugandan artist. They use their art and  craft to express their spiritual belief.

FIGURE 4a: Marisol Escobar, Self-Portrait Looking at The Last Supper, sculptural  assemblage, painted and drawn sketches on wood, plywood, brownstone, plaster and  aluminium, 1982–1984. 
Marisol Escobar was a Venezuelan female artist, who made life-sized, sculptures  from wood to create large installations. The painted large, flat wooden surfaces,  combined with three-dimensional elements of sculptural hands, feet and heads,  create a constant fluctuation from two- to three-dimensionality. Other works are  The Cocktail Party and Poor Family. 
FIGURE 4b: Dominic Lukandwa, The Last Supper, batik on silk, date unknown. 
Dominic Lukandwa is a Ugandan artist who portrays the Last Supper by  combining Western and African cultures. By using batik, beeswax and natural  dyes on silk, he emphasises the rural Africanism. The influence of the Roman  Catholic religion can be seen in the halo of Christ. 
4.1 Candidates must compare FIGURE 4a with FIGURE 4b by referring to the  following guidelines: 

  • Placement of the figures 

FIGURE 4a: The twelve figures are gathered behind the elongated table in  the same formation as that of the painting of Leonardo da Vinci. The disciples  are in four groups of three people sitting along the wooden table. The  perception of the figures constantly shifts between two and three dimensions  as the seated figures are neither fully rounded nor flat. The figure in the  middle is chiselled from stone, while the rest of the figures and the items on  the table are assembled from painted and drawn pieces of wood. A single  figure carved from wood is seated to the right of the artwork and is separate  from the rest of the party. All figures, except one figure to the right of Jesus, 
use hand gestures to point towards the central figure of Christ. The single  figure on the right could be the artist or the viewer observing The Last  Supper. The sculpture takes on a quality of a stage prop. The title of the work  indicates that the figure on the right represents the artist. Christ made of  stone. 

FIGURE 4b: The figures facing the viewer are playing different African  instruments. The figure on the far left is playing a drum with shakers next to  him. The seated figures are identically dressed and are informally arranged  on stools around a round table. The figure in the centre represents Christ,  who is dressed in a bright golden robe. Christ is portrayed with an iconic halo  around his head. It is difficult to decipher whether the figures are male or  female because they are portrayed without typical male or female features.  The figure on the far right is seen playing the African drum. Some of the  figures are shown drinking from a calabash and they are all turned towards  the central figure. References can be made to other cultures and not just  Christianity. Figures could be dressed in Sari's. 

  • Colour and shape  

FIGURE 4a: The artist used lightly tinted wood. The figures and landscape  were painted onto the wood lightly. The central figure of Christ is grey in  colour. The clothing of the artist or onlooker is black in colour. Some of the  wooden panels are painted in soft blues and yellow ochre, reminiscent of the  colours used in the Renaissance period. Rich complementary colours:  layering of cube like shapes (cubism) in comparison to organic shapes in  FIGURE b.The artist has made use of inorganic shapes for the table and  panels and organic shapes for the figures. 

FIGURE 4b: The artist uses of primary and secondary colour. The clothing is  red-brown in colour and is juxtaposed against the complementary colour of  the green fruit. The central figure of Christ is portrayed in bright yellow ochre,  which makes the figure more prominent. The colour may be representative of  gold symbolising royalty and importance. 

  • Depth and movement  

FIGURE 4a: The eight wooden panels on either side of the sculpture draw the  eye to the focal point of Christ. The artist created depth in the background by  placing three rectangular wooden panels behind Christ, imitating three  windows. A painted landscape scene on the 'window panels' also creates  depth. The feet are visible below the table. Above the windows, a semicircle is  painted on the back wall, resembling an arch, which is also visible in Da  Vinci's The Last Supper. Movement has been created by the gestures of the  figures arms and hands. Shallow depth (stage like). 

FIGURE 4b: The figures that are playing musical instruments give the illusion  of movement. The curvilinear lines of the roof and diagonal lines of the  flooring create movement. The blue background creates depth.  

  • Materials/Techniques 

FIGURE 4a: Wood was used to construct the sculptural assemblage. The  artist painted the details of the clothing and facial features onto the wooden  structures. The figure in the middle is chiseled from stone. 

FIGURE4b: The artist used the medium of batik, a typical African technique.  The fine lines are formed by applying wax that gives the work an antique feel.  Bees wax and organic dyes are used in the process. Images are flat, two dimensional etc. 

(ONE mark must be deducted if the candidate does not make a  comparison.) (8)

4.2 Candidates must discuss ONE artwork from TWO different South African artists and/or craft artists.  
Candidates can use the following as a guideline: 

  • Formal art elements 
  • Media and technique 
  • Subject matter and use of imagery  
  • Possible messages/meanings (12) [20]
    Any TWO South African artists can be selected as the paper doesn't  specify that the artworks should be craft and spiritual artworks. 

QUESTION 5: MULTIMEDIA AND NEW MEDIA – ALTERNATIVE  CONTEMPORARY AND POPULAR ART FORMS IN SOUTH  AFRICA 

The installation of the Japanese artist Chiharu Shiota, The Key in the Hand, is an  elaborate entanglement of red wool and keys that dangle above boats. The installation  with its mass of crossing strings/yarn includes a collection of more than 50 000 keys.  The keys were collected from people and places all around the world. According to  Shiota, keys are familiar and very valuable things that protect important people and  spaces in our lives. They also inspire us to open the doors to unknown worlds. 

[Adapted from designboom.com]

FIGURE 5a: Chiharu Shiota, The Key in The Hand, installation with boats, string and  keys, 2015. 
5.1 With reference to the text above and the visual sources in FIGURE 5a and  FIGURE 5b, candidates must describe how the artist communicates her  message. 
Candidates must refer to the following:  

  • Significance of the colours 

Red wool/yarn is used and spun/arranged/hung across the room and ceiling  with rusted keys of different sizes and shapes attached by wool/yarn. Some  metal keys are bunched together and others not. They are interconnected  with the red wool/yarn that is weaved between each other from all directions  and heights. The colour red may symbolise life/veins/blood/love. The faded  colour of the boat reflects ancient times, as it reminds us of an old, decaying  boat. Greenish rusted keys symbolise forever, old, history. Blue/green  reflection (water). Contrast between red and brown could represent danger. 

  • Significance of the size/scale  

This installation is large in scale and is an elaborate entanglement of red  wool/yarn and keys that are arranged and spun from the ceiling. The  spectator becomes part of this space when entering the room and may be  intimidated or even overpowered by the size. The wool/yarn and keys invade  the space of the room. The red mass of wool/yarn could represent the sails of  the boats. The installation is inside and not outside, boats are usually outside. 

  • Use of materials and the contrasts between them 

Red yarn/wool, wooden boats and old rusted keys are used to convey her  message. Some keys are hung in bunches, while others hang individually or  are placed on the floor. The boat (could be old) is constructed from wooden  planks. The boats are elevated from the floor by a wooden stand and trolley. 
Contrast between soft yarn and hard wooden boats. 

  • Symbolic meaning of the wool/strings/yarn, boat and keys 

The installation artist used everyday objects like keys to explore the  memories found within these objects. The keys were collected from  thousands of people around the world. Each key holds memories,  recollections and experiences. Keys are familiar, protect valuable items, and  are often used to lock up areas of importance. Keys are symbolic and are  often synonymous with good luck, prosperity and good fortune. Keys also  relate to a jail cell. Keys symbolise relations linked and lock together. Doors  and locks could be symbolic of the unknown. The two ancient boats may  refer to our past/history or ancestors. In FIGURE 5a the boat is raised from  the floor, making it appear as if it is in motion, or it could symbolise the  beginning of a journey/voyage of life. As humans we are connected or in  relation to others through experiences and events. The keys may refer to the  different paths and experiences that we experience throughout life. Life is not  a straight forward journey as your life could become tangled and therefore  life is not that easy/straightforward. 

  • What is the candidates' understanding of the title of the work? They  must substantiate their answer. 

The title of the installation refers to the fact that we carry keys around in our  hands. The keys are used to open a door, gate, safe, etc. or to lock a door or safe. When locking up or opening a lock you are in control of the situation. By  opening up a door you allow new opportunities/memories to present  themselves to you. The key is also used to lock up, protect or keep  something safe or hidden. Your secrets and memories could also be locked  up and tucked away from other people. (10) 

5.2 Candidates must interpret ONE artwork by a South African artist who uses  alternative media in search of ways of communicating his/her ideas. (10) [20]

QUESTION 6: POST-1994 DEMOCRATIC IDENTITY IN SOUTH AFRICA 

Many post-1994 democratic contemporary South African artists show expressions of  urban identity by combining influences from street culture, portraits, urban life and  social media.

6.1 Candidates must discuss how the artists have expressed a contemporary  urban South-African identity using both FIGURE 6a and FIGURE 6b. 
They may refer to the following guidelines: 

  • Influences 

FIGURE 6a: Influences on Asha Zero's works are images of Betty Boop,  portraits, children, fun, play, games, which are cutouts from magazines or  photographs. 

FIGURE 6b: Kilmany- Jo Liversage is known for her work in Urban Art, which  is recognised as an art form inspired by street art, most notably spray-painted  graffiti and stencilling. She is inspired by advertising and social media. 

  • Colour 

FIGURE 6a: The background is in grey tones. Light yellow and white faces  have laughing/shouting red mouths. Mouths could be aggressive .Yellow and  black danger signs with black lettering give the work a Pop Art feel. The work  has a macabre/dangerous and uncomfortable feeling. 

FIGURE 6 b: Liversage uses saturated colours that refer to Pop Art.  Complementary colours of oranges and blues create a vibrant feeling. The  markings on the portrait relate to Marilyn Monroe. Andy Warhol influence. 

  • Style and technique 

FIGURE 6a: The artist uses acrylic paint to copy the collage meticulously.  The torn edges of the paper seem three-dimensional. The work reminds us of  Dada montages and contains surrealistic faces painted in a trompe-l'oeil way  to trick the eye with a meticulous realistic technique. Eyes in top and bottom  of the composition are different, in the top part of the composition the eyes  are open and in the bottom they are obscured/ closed.  

FIGURE 6b: Liversage works on canvas with acrylic paint, spray paint and  stencils. Gestural marks refer directly to graffiti. Her process of the layering of  paint creates texture.

  • Possible meanings/interpretations 

FIGURE 6a: Small pieces of photographs form a coherent whole. The  breaking up or tearing up of images and paper could refer to destructions of  identity, as all people have to conform into something new. Look like posters  stuck to a wall and partially removed and other stuck ontop of them. Zero  says, 'We're only ONE piece.' The form of new identity is a necessity to all  people who want to adapt to a constant changing society. Using a picture of a  doll, similar to Betty Boop or Kewpie, shows similarities to brand names.  These dolls were very popular in the past. This could portray the significance  of characteristics of specific toys to which a child can relate. Laughing mouths  portray fun and games. The two portraits formed by fragments of dolls' faces  become laughing children looking at each another. Images of dance culture  are seen at the bottom of the painting. 

FIGURE 6b: Judella 515 could refer to the many faces on billboards used for  advertisements. The graphic lines imitate graffiti on the walls of subways. It  can refer to the many faces of models becoming the cheap possessions of  society. This image reminds us of a selfie. 

Candidates must give their own opinion which artwork portrays the  strongest expression of urban identity. They must substantiate their  answer. (10) 

6.2 Candidates must elaborate on the concept of urban identity by discussing  TWO artworks. 
They must refer to the following: 

  • Formal art elements 
  • Composition 
  • Media and technique 
  • Style 
  • Possible messages/meanings (10) [20] 

Be flexible in this question, learner must discuss identity, however, they can refer to  rural identity as well.

QUESTION 7: GENDER ISSUES: MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY 

The Sphinx from ancient Egyptian art is seen as a symbol of male power. Kara Walker,  an African-American artist, used a similar posture in her work A Subtlety, or the  Marvelous Sugar Baby, which was created for an old sugar factory. In America there  is a history of women being exploited and forced to work in the sugarcane fields. 

7.1 Candidates must write a short essay about Kara Walker's work A Subtlety, or  the Marvelous Sugar Baby, in which they refer to the following: 
FIGURE 7a and 7b: Kara Walker, A Subtlety, or the Marvelous Sugar  Baby, polystyrene, molasses and sugar, 2014. 

  • Why do they think the artist portrayed the figure as the Sphinx?  Candidates must give reasons for their answer. 

Sphinx is a 'god'- glorify women as a 'god'. Sexual position-women depicted  as a sexual object. Kara Walker made a monumental sculpture of an African  woman, portrayed as the Sphinx. This was created in an old sugar factory; therefore, the title of 'Sugar baby' was born. As the sugar started to  disintegrate, the pieces were picked up and placed in the baskets. This was a  gesture of salvation and healing by the so-called 'picking up of the pieces' left  by a society.  
The Sphinx symbolises the importance of a king in the ancient Egyptian times.  The king was regarded as the most important figure of the nation. The body of  a Sphinx was that of a lion, while the head was a portrait/an image of the  deceased king/Pharaoh. Oversized sculpture emphasises body features  (breasts, lips, behind) of a women. 
The artist wanted to portray the woman as an important figure who can be as  strong and angry as a lion to defend her children. Unfortunately, she doesn't  always have control over the destiny of her children. The body in this case is  that of a woman and not a lion. It portrays the femininity of the sculpture. 

  • The scale of the sculpture 

The scale of this artwork not only reflects the powerful ability of the artist to  create a challenging work, but also the power of all women.  

  • The use of sugar and molasses as a medium 

Molasses and sugar being very sweet could refer to the women being called  'sweetness' or 'sugar'. Often this was done to degrade women and make them  cheap. Molasses and sugar also deteriorate over time but remains sweet.  Although women age, they still remain sweet and feminine.

  • Candidates must write in which way the words 'sugar' and 'baby'  contribute to the meaning of the work.  

The words 'Sugar' and 'Baby' can be used as derogatory or as affectionate. A  sugar baby is also the name given to a young girl who dates an older man,  who is called a 'sugar daddy'. 'Baby' –is a stereotypical term given to a  woman who must bear and raise the children. She is sitting in the position of a  baby. Woman are seen as 'treats'- men always want love (sugar) from a  woman. 

(FIGURE 7c: The Sphinx had been included as a reference only and not  to be discussed as the main example.) (8) 

7.2 Candidates must refer to any TWO artists and their works they have studied,  and write an essay in which they comment on their portrayal of masculinity  and/or femininity. 

They may use the following guidelines in your answer: 

  • Subject matter  
  • Media and technique 
  • Style  
  • Messages/Meanings (12) [20] 

QUESTION 8: ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH AFRICA 

The emphasis on ecological awareness linked with the new technologies of computer aided design has made it easier for architects to create unique buildings.

8.1 Candidate must refer to the statement above and analyse the example in  FIGURE 8 by referring to the following guidelines: 

  • Why would the architect use corn stalks and living root structures in  the design of his bricks? 

The artist uses 3M bio-design organic bricks (geometric forms) made from  corn stalks and living root structures. The bricks are without decoration and  made from simple materials. The repetition of structures/bricks represents a  sense of order. The organic bricks are arranged at the bottom of the structure  and reflective bricks are arranged at the top to bounce light down on the  towers and on the ground. There are no internal walls and the spaces are  open between the interior and exterior. The bricks are thin and porous at the  bottom. The structure offers shade for the garden. Rain can easily enter the  structure, as it is open at the top. The building is easy to maintain. No  windows have been used. It will make the bricks 100% organic and also 100%  biodegradable; it can be used for compost afterwards. Recycled cornstalks  and root structures used to grow bricks, will be a cheaper material than the  traditional materials.

  • Why do the candidates think the bricks are not packed together  tightly? 

The building is eco-friendly (green) and easy to construct, which doesn't leave  a carbon footprint. The building has a wide entrance and it is open at the top,  allowing ample light to enter the structure. There are no windows, thus the  only natural light that enters this structure is through the side entrance and  two tunnel-like shapes. The movement of natural light reveals the simple,  clean spaces. The large structure has an organic form and the interior is  enclosed. The structure is solid and without windows. To let through light and  air, air will flow from the bottom, where it is loosely packed, up through the  open funnels (warm air rises)-the airflow will cool the building down. 

  • Why has the architect decided to use a reflective material at the top  of the structure?  

The inexpensive bricks (material) are a lot cheaper, as they are recycled  growing trays. No electricity is needed as the architect makes use of natural  light. The construction can be assembled in a short period as no concrete is  used in the construction. The reflective bricks will reflect the blue sky and  clouds to give the building a visually on-going, growing, melting into the sky  feeling. 

  • Do the candidates think the form/shape of this structure is visually/  aesthetically appealing? They must substantiate their answer.  

Candidates must substantiate their arguments of whether the structure is  visually appealing. The form and shape of the building support the ecological  and biological awareness being very organic and seems to be a growing  organism. (8) 

8.2 Candidates must discuss any TWO South African buildings/structures that  they have studied.  
They must include the following in their short essay: 

  • Use of materials  
  • Use of style 
  • Possible influences (12) [20] 

TOTAL: 100

Last modified on Thursday, 17 June 2021 09:58