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GEOGRAPHY GRADE 12 - EXAMINATION GUIDELINES 2021

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GEOGRAPHY
EXAMINATION GUIDELINES
GRADE 12
2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page 
1. INTRODUCTION  3
2. ASSESSMENT IN GRADE 12 
2.1 PAPER 1 
2.2 PAPER 2  
4
4
4
3. ELABORATION OF CONTENT/TOPICS 
3.1 PAPER 1 
3.1.1 Climate and Weather
3.1.2 Geomorphology: 
3.1.3 Geographical Skills and Techniques  
5
5
5
7
9
3.2 PAPER 2 
3.2.1 Rural and Urban Settlements 
3.2.2 Economic Geography of South Africa
3.2.3 Geographical Skills and Techniques 

10
10
13
16

3.3 STRUCTURE OF EXAMINATION QUESTION PAPER
3.3.1 Details of question papers
3.3.2 Cognitive Levels  
18
18
19
4. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MARKING  19
5. CONCLUSION 20
6. ANNEXURE A: ACTION WORDS 21

1. INTRODUCTION
The Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) for Engineering Graphics and Design outlines the nature and purpose of the subject Engineering Graphics and Design. This guides the philosophy underlying the teaching and assessment of the subject in Grade 12.
The purpose of these Examination Guidelines is to:

  • Provide clarity on the depth and scope of the content to be assessed in the Grade 12 National Senior Certificate (NSC) Examination in Engineering Graphics and Design.
  • Assist teachers to adequately prepare learners for the NSC examinations.

This document deals with the final Grade 12 external examinations. It does not deal in any depth with the School-based Assessment (SBA), Performance Assessment Tasks (PATs) or final external practical examinations as these are clarified in a separate PAT document which is updated annually.
These Examination Guidelines should be read in conjunction with:

  • The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS): Engineering Graphics and Design
  • The National Protocol of Assessment: An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol for Assessment (Grades R–12)
  • The national policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement, Grades R–12
  • Abridged Amended Section 4 of FET CAPS in Grades 12

2. ASSESSMENT IN GRADE 12
2.1 PAPER 1
2.1.1 This is a 3-hour question paper which is written on a SEPARATE DAY from Paper 2.
2.1.2 The mark allocation for this paper is 150.
2.1.3 The question paper consists of two sections, namely SECTION A and SECTION B:
SECTION A: Climate and Weather and Geomorphology (Theory)
SECTION B: Geographical Skills and Techniques
2.1.4 SECTION A consists of TWO questions of 60 marks each.
SECTION B consists of ONE question of 30 marks.
2.1.5 All THREE questions are compulsory.
2.2 PAPER 2
2.2.1 This is a 3-hour question paper which is written on a SEPARATE DAY from Paper 1.
2.2.2 The mark allocation for this paper is 150.
2.2.3 The question paper consists of two sections, namely SECTION A and SECTION B:
SECTION A: Settlement and Economic Geography of South Africa (Theory)
SECTION B: Geographical Skills and Techniques
2.2.4 SECTION A consists of TWO questions of 60 marks each.
SECTION B consists of ONE question of 30 marks.
2.2.5 All THREE questions are COMPULSORY.

3. ELABORATION OF CONTENT/TOPICS
3.1 PAPER 1
3.1.1 Climate and Weather
Mid-latitude cyclones (frontal depressions, extra-tropical cyclones)

  • General characteristics
  • Areas of formation
  • Conditions necessary for formation
  • Stages of development
  • Cross-section through a mid-latitude cyclone
  • Associated weather patterns:
    • Cold front conditions
    • Warm front conditions
    • Occluded front conditions
  • Impact on human activities (social and economic) and the environment
  • Possible pre-cautionary and management strategies
  • Identification on synoptic weather maps and satellite images:
    • Identification of stages of development on synoptic weather maps
    • Impact of South Indian High and South Atlantic High on movement of the cyclone
    • Reading and interpretation of weather symbols, predicted weather impact

Tropical cyclones

  • General characteristics
  • Areas of formation and associated terms in different parts of the world
  • Factors necessary for the formation
  • Stages of development
  • Associated weather patterns
  • Cross-section through a tropical cyclone (interpretation)
  • Impact on human activities (social and economic) and the environment (the impact of the weather associated with tropical cyclones)
  • Pre-cautionary and management strategies to manage the effects of tropical cyclones
  • Identification on synoptic weather maps and satellite images:
    • Identification of stages of development on synoptic weather maps
    • Reading and interpretation of applicable weather symbols
  • Case study of ONE recent tropical cyclone anywhere in the world

Subtropical anticyclones (high-pressure cells) and the resultant weather over South Africa

  • Location and identification of the THREE high-pressure cells that affect South Africa:
    • South Atlantic high-pressure cell
    • South Indian high-pressure cell
    • Kalahari high-pressure cell
  • General characteristics of the THREE high-pressure cells
  • Influence of anticyclones on South Africa's weather and climate (integration with plateau, inversion layer, ocean currents and ridging of the SAHP)- summer and winter position
  • Reading and interpretation of information related to the THREE high-pressure cells on synoptic weather maps
  • Development of travelling disturbances associated with anticyclonic circulation:
    • Moisture front and line thunderstorms
    • Coastal low pressure
    • South African berg wind
  • Resultant weather and impact (and strategies to reduce the impact) associated with moving disturbances
  • Identification of moving disturbances on synoptic weather maps and satellite images
  • Reading and interpretation of synoptic weather maps and satellite images that illustrate weather associated with anticyclonic conditions

Valley climates

  • Slope aspect:
    • Definition
    • Effect on the distribution of temperature in a valley
  • Definition and development of:
    • Anabatic winds
    • Katabatic winds
    • Inversions
    • Thermal belt
    • Frost pockets
    • Radiation fog
  • Influence/impact on human activities (economic, social and environmental):
    • Settlement
    • Farming

Urban climates

  • Reasons for differences between rural and urban climates
  • Urban heat islands:
    • Definition
    • Causes of urban heat islands/factors contributing to higher city temperatures
    • Effects of urban heat islands (economic, social and environmental)
    • Strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect
  • Pollution domes:
    • Definition
    • Causes of pollution domes
    • Effects of pollution domes (economic, social and environmental)
    • Strategies to reduce the pollution dome effect

Interpretation of synoptic weather maps (integrate with the relevant content)

  • Use of international symbols
  • Identification and characteristics of high- and low-pressure cells
  • Interpretation of the impact of high- and low-pressure cells
  • Reading and interpretation of station models
  • Satellite images – reading and interpretation
  • Compare satellite images to synoptic weather maps

3.1.2 Geomorphology
Drainage basins in South Africa

  • Concepts (definition, identification and application) of:
    • Drainage basin
    • Catchment area
    • River system
    • Tributary
    • Confluence
    • Watershed
    • Interfluve
    • Source
    • River mouth
    • Surface run-off
    • Infiltration
    • Groundwater
    • Water table
  • Types of rivers (definition, identification and application):
    • Permanent
    • Periodic
    • Episodic
    • Exotic
  • Identification, underlying rock structure, development and characteristics of the following drainage patterns:
    • Dendritic
    • Trellis
    • Rectangular
    • Radial
    • Centripetal
    • Deranged
    • Parallel
  • Definition and impact of factors influencing drainage density:(high/low drainage density):
    • Precipitation
    • Evaporation
    • Soil moisture
    • Vegetation
    • Slope/Gradient
    • Porosity
    • Permeability
      NOTE: The above should be taught with the understanding of infiltration
  • Determining stream order (definition, identification and interpretation)
  • Discharge of a river: (definition, identification and application)
    • Laminar flow
    • Turbulent flow

Fluvial processes

  • River profiles:
    • Definition, description and associated characteristics including stream load
    • Cross/Transverse profile
    • Longitudinal profile
    • Plan view of both profiles
    • Relationship of both profiles to the stages of a river (upper, middle, lower course)
  • Identification, description, formation and significance and impact of fluvial landforms/features:
    • Meander
      • Undercut slope
      • Slip-off slope
    • Oxbow lake
    • Braided stream
    • Flood plain
    • Natural levee
    • Waterfall
    • Rapid
    • Delta
  • River grading:
    • Definition (graded and ungraded rivers)
    • Processes involved in a river becoming graded
    • Distinguish between graded and ungraded streams
    • Base level of erosion
    • Temporary base level of erosion
    • Permanent base level of erosion
  • River rejuvenation:
    • Definition
    • Reasons for rejuvenation
    • Features of rejuvenation
      • Knickpoint
      • Terraces
      • Valley in a valley
      • Incised/Entrenched meanders
    • Significance of rejuvenated landscapes (economic, social and environmental)
  • River capture/Stream piracy:
    • Concepts (definition, identification and application) of:
      • River capture/stream piracy
      • Abstraction
      • Headward erosion
    • Features associated with river capture (identification, description and application):
      • Captor stream
      • Captured stream
      • Misfit stream
      • Elbow of capture
      • Wind gap
    • Impact of river capture on captor stream and captured stream
    • Implications of river capture for human activities, settlements, recreation, agriculture and ecosystems
    • Identification of features associated with river capture on topographic maps
  • Superimposed and antecedent drainage patterns (definition, description and causes)

Catchment and river management

  • Definition of river management
  • Causes of poor river management
  • Importance of managing drainage basins and catchment areas
  • Impact of people on drainage basins and catchment areas:
    • River pollution (e.g. eutrophication)
    • Overgrazing
    • Deforestation
    • Human settlement
  • Strategies to manage drainage basins/catchment areas
  • Case study of one catchment management strategy in South Africa

3.1.3 Geographical Skills and Techniques
(Topographic map and orthophoto map reading and interpretation)
Mapwork Techniques

  • Contour lines, contour interval and height and conventional signs
  • Compass direction
  • True bearing
  • Magnetic declination and magnetic bearing
  • Map scale – types of scales and comparing the scales of topographic maps, orthophoto maps and aerial photographs
  • Calculating straight-line distance in reality
  • Calculating area of regular features
  • Map reference numbers/Map index
  • Alphanumeric reference/Grid reference
  • Map coordinates/Fixing position – stating the coordinates
  • Calculation and interpretation of average gradient
  • Cross-sections – drawing of cross-sections, indicating position of features on cross-sections and identifying features represented by cross-sections
  • Intervisibility
  • Calculating vertical exaggeration

Topographic Maps

  • Use of 1: 50 000 topographic maps:
    • To identify and interpret physical features, e.g. relief, drainage, climate and vegetation
  • Application of the Grade 12 Paper 1 content on Climate and Weather and Geomorphology to mapwork
  • Interpreting of temperature, rainfall, climate zones and biomes, graphs and tables that are related to the 1: 50 000 topographic map and the 1: 10 000 orthophoto map being assessed
  • Identification of different types of rivers, drainage patterns, determining of stream order and drainage density on 1:50 000 topographic map and the 1 : 10 000 orthophoto map being assessed.
  • Identification and interpretation of structural landforms and slope elements on 1 : 50 000 topographic map and the 1 : 10 000 orthophoto map being assessed.

Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps

  • Oblique and vertical aerial photographs – identifying landforms and features
  • Use of size, shape, tone, texture, shadow and patterns to identify features, landforms and activities on photographs and orthophoto maps
  • Orientation of orthophoto map with topographic map
  • Compare orthophoto map to topographic map

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  • GIS (definition)
  • Components of GIS
  • Sources of information for GIS
  • Concepts (definition, identification and application) of:
    • Remote sensing
      • Resolution
      • Pixels
    • Spatial resolution
    • Spatial and attribute data
    • Vector and raster data
    • Spatial objects
      • Points/Nodes
      • Lines
      • Area/Polygons
  • Data layering/thematic layering of information
  • Data layers (identification and interpretation)
  • Data manipulation and analysis:
    • Data manipulation
    • Data integration
    • Buffering
    • Querying
    • Statistical analysis
  • Data standardisation
  • Data sharing
  • Data security
  • Application of GIS by the:
    • Government
    • Private sector
  • Developing a 'paper GIS' from existing maps, photographs and other sources of information on layers of tracing paper
  • Identifying and interpreting concepts using given data such as satellite images, topographic maps, orthophoto maps, aerial photographs, pictures and statistics indicated on graphs and tables

3.2 PAPER 2
3.2.1 Rural and Urban Settlements
Study of settlements

  • Definition of:
    • Settlement
    • Site
    • Situation
  • Rural and urban settlements
  • Classification of settlements according to:
    • Size and complexity
    • Pattern
    • Function

Rural settlements

  • How site and situation affect the location of rural settlements
  • Classification of rural settlements according to:
    • Pattern
      • Identification of different patterns
      • Advantages and disadvantages
    • Function
  • Identification and reasons for different shapes of rural settlements:
    • Round
    • Linear
    • Crossroad
    • T-shape
  • Land use in rural settlements
    • Identification of land use: farming, forestry and conservation

Rural settlement Issues

  • Concept of rural-urban migration (definition and application)
    • Push and pull factors
  • Definition of rural depopulation:
    • Causes and consequences of rural depopulation on people and the economy
    • Strategies to address rural depopulation
    • Case study that illustrates effects of rural depopulation and strategies to address them
  • Social justice issues associated with rural settlements:
  • Definition, purpose, challenges in implementation, success stories and impact on communities
    • Access to resources (natural: water and human-made: limited investment and lack of infrastructure)
    • Land reform (land tenure, redistribution and restitution)

Urban settlements

  • The origin and development of urban settlements
  • Urbanisation of the world population
  • Concepts (definition, identification and application) of:
    • Urbanisation
    • Urban growth
    • Urban expansion
    • Urban sprawl
    • Rate of urbanisation
    • Level of urbanisation
    • Counter-urbanisation
  • How site and situation affect the location of urban settlements
  • Classification (identification, description and purpose) of urban settlements according to function:
    • Central places
    • Trade and transport towns (Break-of-bulk points, Junction towns and Gateway/Gap towns)
    • Specialised towns

Urban hierarchies

  • Concepts (identification, description and interpretation) of:
    • Urban hierarchy
    • Central place
    • Threshold population
    • Sphere of influence
    • Range of goods
  • Concepts (identification, description and interpretation) of:
    • Low- and high-order functions/services
    • Low- and high-order centres

Urban structure and patterns

  • Internal structure and patterns of urban settlements (includes shape of urban settlements)
  • Take note of the difference between land-use (e.g. greenbelt and recreation) and land-use zones
    • Land-use zones, including reasons for location, purpose and characteristics
      • Commercial (CBD, OBD, types of commercial decentralisation)
      • Residential
      • Industrial
      • Transition zone/Zone of decay
      • Rural-urban fringe
    • Factors influencing the morphological structure of a city
      • Street patterns (plan)
      • Building density
    • Urban profiles
      • Concept (definition, identification and application) of urban profile
      • Reasons for shape of urban profile
  • Models of urban structure (description and characteristics):
    • Multiple nuclei (Harris and Ullman)
    • Modern American-Western city
    • Third World city
    • South African city
    • Changing urban patterns and land use in South Africa (buffer zones, greenbelts)

Urban settlement issues

  • Recent urbanisation patterns/ trends in South Africa
  • Urban issues related to rapid urbanisation: (definition, causes, impact, possible solutions like counter-urbanisation)
    • Pollution
    • Urban blight
    • Traffic congestion
    • Lack of planning/urban sprawl
    • Overcrowding
    • Housing shortages
    • Service provision (basic services)
    • Social challenges
  • Informal settlements:
    • Concept (definition and identification)
    • Growth of informal settlements
    • Issues associated with informal settlements
    • Strategies to address issues relating to informal settlements
    • Case studies from South Africa and the world
  • Case studies on how selected urban areas in South Africa are managing urban challenges
  • Injustice issues in urban areas
    Definition of environmental, social and economic injustice concerns
    • Environmental concerns
      • Air pollution
      • Noise pollution
      • Destruction of ecosystems
    • Economic concerns
      • Poverty
      • Poor public transport systems
  • Social concerns
      • Unequal access to services
      • Unequal access to resources (overview)

3.2.2 Economic Geography of South Africa
NOTE: This section has rotating topics allocated for the next four (4) years. Although these topics must be covered as specified it does not necessarily mean that the particular topic will be examined.
The structure of the economy

  • Economic sectors – definitions and examples:
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary
  • Contribution of economic sectors to the South African economy:
    • Definition, interpretation of, value and contribution to, GNP and GDP
    • Employment (linked to different sectors, interpretation and application)
  • Use/Interpretation of statistical and graphical information

Agriculture

  • Contribution of agriculture to the South African economy
  • Small-scale farming and large-scale farming: definition, characteristics and interpretation
  • Main products produced (definition and examples)- home market and export market

NOTE: Instruction at the beginning of the section on Economic Geography

EXAMINATION  YEAR  PRESCRIBED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT 
November 2021
May/June 2022 
2021/22  Beef
November 2022
May/June 2023 
2022/23  Sugar Cane
November 2023
May/June 2024 
2023/24  Maize 
  • Areas of production on a map, identification and interpretation
  • Apply factors that favour and hinder agriculture in South Africa to the product studied
  • Contribution of prescribed product to the South African economy
  • Food security:
    • Definition of food security and food insecurity
    • Importance of food security in South Africa
    • Factors influencing food security in South Africa
    • Strategies to improve food security in South Africa
  • Case studies related to food security and food insecurity in South Africa.

Mining

  • Contribution of mining to the South African economy
  • Significance of mining to the development of South Africa
  • A case study of one of South Africa's main minerals produced

NOTE: Instruction at the beginning of the section on Economic Geography

EXAMINATION  YEAR  PRESCRIBED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT 
November 2021
May/June 2022 
2021/22  Coal
November 2022
May/June 2023 
2022/23  Gold
November 2023
May/June 2024 
2023/24  Platinum
  • Location of mineral studied on a map, identification and interpretation
  • Apply factors that favour and hinder mining in South Africa to the main minerals above
  • Contribution of prescribed mineral to the South African economy

Secondary and Tertiary Sectors

  • Contribution of secondary sector to the South African economy
  • Types of industries (definition, description, examples and characteristics):
    • Heavy and light
    • Raw material orientated
    • Market orientated
    • Footloose industries
    • Ubiquitous industries
    • Bridge (Break of bulk)
  • Factors favouring industrial development in South Africa:
    • Raw materials
    • Labour supply
    • Water supply
    • Energy supply
    • Transport
    • Political intervention
    • Competition
    • Trade
  • Factors hindering industrial development in South Africa:
    • Over-concentration
    • Transport
    • Air pollution
    • Labour supply
    • Water supply
    • Energy supply
    • Raw materials
    • Political interference
    • Competition
    • Trade
  • South Africa's core/main industrial regions:
    • Gauteng (PWV), Durban-Pinetown, Port Elizabeth-Uitenhage, South-western Cape
    • Location of the above FOUR core industrial regions on a map

NOTE: Instruction at the beginning of the section on Economic Geography

EXAMINATION  YEAR  PRESCRIBED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT 
November 2021
May/June 2022 
2021/22  Gauteng(PWV)/South-western Cape
November 2022
May/June 2023 
2022/23  Gauteng(PWV)/Durban-Pinetown
November 2023
May/June 2024 
2023/24  Gauteng(PWV)/Port Elizabeth-Uitenhage

NOTE: The TWO prescribed core industrial regions stipulated for each year should be taught.
Key facts to concentrate on with regards to the prescribed core industrial areas

  • Map showing their location
  • Factors influencing the location of the prescribed industrial region
  • Main industrial activities in the prescribed industrial region
  • Factors that favour and hinder the continued success of the prescribed core industrial regions studied
  • Economic and social impacts of the prescribed core industrial region
  • Case studies to illustrate the above

Strategies for Industrial Development

  • Overview of apartheid industrial development strategy:
    • The Good Hope Plan
  • Overview of post-apartheid industrial development strategies:
    • The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP)
    • Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR)
  • Industrial Development Zones (IDZs) and spatial development Initiatives (SDIs):
  • Case studies of two Industrial Development Zones (IDZs) and Spatial Development initiatives (SDIs):

NOTE: Instruction at the beginning of the section on Economic Geography

EXAMINATION  YEAR  IDZ  SDI
November 2021
May/June 2022 
2021/22  Saldanha Bay West Coast
November 2022
May/June 2023 
2022/23  Dube Trade port Maputo Corridor
November 2023
May/June 2024 
2023/24  Coega Wild coast

NOTE: The ONE prescribed IDZ and SDI stipulated for each year should be taught
Key facts to concentrate on with regard to the prescribed IDZ's and SDI's

  • Definition and difference between an IDZ and SDIs
  • Map showing the location of prescribed IDZs and SDIs
  • Factors influencing the location of the prescribed IDZs and SDIs
  • Main industrial activities
  • Factors that favour and hinder the development of the prescribed IDZs and SDIs
  • Economic and social impacts
  • Case studies to illustrate the above
  • Industrial centralisation and decentralisation
    • Definition, causes, advantages/disadvantages and solutions
  • Contribution of tertiary activities to the South African economy:
    • Definition of tertiary activities
    • Examples of tertiary activities
    • The role of trade (local and international) in economic development (definition, balance of trade, trade agreements)
    • The role of transport (public/private) in economic development
    • Interpretation of graphs and tables on tertiary activities
    • Case studies of contribution of tertiary activities to the South African economy

The informal sector

  • Concept of informal sector employment
  • Characteristics of informal sector employment
  • Reasons for high informal sector employment in South Africa
  • Challenges facing South Africa's informal sector
  • Importance/Role of the informal sector in the economy
  • Strategies for strengthening the informal sector
  • Case studies to illustrate the above in the South African context

3.2.3 Geographical Skills and Techniques
(Topographic map and Orthophoto map reading and interpretation)
Mapwork Techniques

  • Contour lines, contour interval and height and conventional signs
  • Compass direction
  • True bearing
  • Magnetic declination and magnetic bearing
  • Map scale – types of scales and comparing the scales of topographic maps, orthophoto maps and aerial photographs
  • Calculating straight-line distance in reality
  • Calculating area of regular features
  • Map reference numbers/Map index
  • Alphanumeric reference/Grid reference
  • Map coordinates/Fixing position – stating the coordinates
  • Calculation and interpretation of gradient
  • Cross-sections – drawing of cross-sections, indicating position of features on cross-sections and identifying features represented by cross-sections
  • Intervisibility
  • Calculating vertical exaggeration

Topographic Maps

  • Use of 1 : 50 000 topographic maps:
    • To identify and interpret physical features, e.g. relief, drainage, climate and vegetation and how they influence settlement and land-use
    • To identify and interpret cultural features, e.g. settlement, land-use and transport networks
  • Application of Grade 12 Paper 2 content on Settlement and Economic Geography to mapwork
  • Interpreting of settlement and economic statistics, graphs and tables that are related to the 1 : 50 000 topographic map and the 1 : 10 000 orthophoto map being assessed

Aerial Photographs and Orthophoto Maps

  • Oblique and vertical aerial photographs – identifying landforms and features
  • Use of size, shape, tone, texture, shadow and patterns to identify features and activities on photographs and orthophoto maps
  • Orientation of orthophoto map with topographic maps
  • Compare orthophoto map to topographic maps

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  • GIS (definition)
  • Components of GIS
  • Sources of information for GIS
  • Concepts (definition, identification and application) of:
    • Remote sensing
      • Resolution
      • Pixels
    • Spatial resolution
    • Spatial and attribute data
    • Vector and raster data
    • Spatial objects
      • Points/Nodes
      • Lines
      • Area/Polygons
  • Data layering/thematic layering of information
  • Data layers (identification and interpretation)
  • Data manipulation and analysis:
    • Data manipulation
    • Data integration
    • Buffering
    • Querying
    • Statistical analysis
  • Data standardisation
  • Data sharing
  • Data security
  • Application of GIS by the:
    • Government
    • Private sector
  • Developing a 'paper GIS' from existing maps, photographs and other sources of information on layers of tracing paper
  • Identifying and interpreting concepts using given data such as satellite images, topographic maps, orthophoto maps, aerial photographs, pictures and statistics indicated on graphs and tables

3.3 STRUCTURE OF EXAMINATION QUESTION PAPER
3.3.1 Details of question papers

  1. Each paper carries 150 MARKS, assessing both theory and mapwork.
  2. The duration of each paper is 3 HOURS.
  3. The two papers must NOT be written on the same day.
  4. Each paper comprises of 3 questions which are ALL COMPULSORY:

    Questions 1 and 2 are found in SECTION A and Question 3 in SECTION B.
    SECTION A:

    • Questions 1 and 2 are based on theory for 60 marks each.
    • Each of the two questions will begin with a variety of short/objective type questions for 15 marks. The format of these questions will vary. This is followed by 3 subquestions of 15 marks each.
    • Each of the two questions will include a paragraph type question for 8 marks, i.e. (4 x 2) = (8). The paragraph question may NOT be answered in point form and will require insight and analytical thinking skills. The paragraph question can be in any of these subquestions
    • A variety of source materials will be used, e.g. satellite images, synoptic weather charts, graphs, statistics, tables, info-graphics, sketch maps, cartoons, photographs, case studies and newspaper articles.
    • Candidates must be able to illustrate all geographical concepts taught. Illustrations could be simple labelled diagrams/sketches or detailed annotated (with explanatory labels) diagrams/sketches.
    • Please note in the 15 mark subquestions content tested could cover more than one aspect within a broad topic.

    SECTION B:
    NOTE: A 1:50 000 topographic map extract and a 1:10 000 orthophoto map extract will be used for testing purposes

    • Question 3 is based on mapwork, i.e. geographical skills and techniques for 30 marks and will be divided as follows:
      • Map skills and calculations (10 marks)
      • Map interpretation (12 marks)
      • GIS (8 marks)

    NOTE: Multiple choice questions can be integrated in all of the above

  5. The following instructions and information will appear on the second page of the question paper. Learners should be advised of these instructions from the beginning of the year, as many learners do not adhere to these instructions:

  • The question paper consists of THREE questions.
  • ALL diagrams are included in the annexure.
  • Where possible, illustrate your answers with labelled diagrams.
  • Leave a line between subsections answered.
  • Start EACH question at the top of a NEW page.
  • Number your answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this question paper.
  • Do NOT write in the margins of the ANSWER BOOK.
  • Write neatly and legibly.
  • You may a magnifying glass
  • The unit of measurement must be given in the final answer, where applicable, e.g. 10 km, 4 °C, east.

3.3.2 Cognitive Levels
The cognitive level rating of both question papers are as follows:

Low order   Middle order   High order 
25%
(37/38 marks) 
 50%
(75 marks)
 25%
(37/38 marks)

It is important to note that short objective type questions can also be high-order questions. Paragraph type questions should only be pitched at middle or high-order level as they require analytical and thinking skills.

4. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MARKING

  • Definitions should be marked looking at the concept and not verbatim as given in textbooks. Mark allocation is (1 x 2) (2)
  • Allocate ticks next to the fact/information for which marks are awarded. One tick per mark awarded, e.g. where double marks are allocated there must be two ticks.
  • The entire answer must be marked. Do not look at the first facts/information provided and allocate marks, e.g. 0 (zero). There may be correct facts/information later in the answer and marks must be awarded for those.
  • Read the answer thoroughly. Correct answers may be provided that are not in the memorandum/marking guidelines. Candidates must be awarded marks for these answers.
  • When marking paragraph type answers, ensure that candidates write in full sentences and not answer in point form.
  • NO negative marking is allowed.
  • Calculations:
  • NOTE: Calculations do not necessarily have to be tested to the full allocation of marks given in the breakdown
    • Marks may be awarded for providing the correct formula, if the formula is not given.
    • Marks will be awarded for the correct substitution of values in the formula.
    • Marks will be awarded for calculations.
    • When an error is made during substitution into a correct formula, a mark will be awarded for the correct formula, but no further marks will be given.
    • Marks will be awarded for the correct answer.
    • If the answer is incorrect, the calculation must be marked from the top and marks must be awarded up to the point where the candidate calculated incorrectly.
    • If a unit is required, e.g. kilometres, the answer must be marked as incorrect if it is not provided. However, marks must be awarded for all the steps in the calculation leading up the answer.
    • Marks are only awarded for a formula if a calculation has been attempted, i.e. substitutions have been made or a numerical answer is given.
    • All calculations, when not specified in the question, must be calculated to a minimum of ONE decimal place.
    • If a final answer to a calculation is correct, full marks may be awarded if the candidate shows the formula, substitutions and calculation steps, and the unit of measurement is indicated. If the candidate writes the answer only, marks will be awarded for the answer only.

  • Mark allocations suggested for Grade 12 calculations:
  • Distance (2 marks) – as per distance calculation in average gradient
    ✓for correct measurement on map (cm/mm)
    ✓ for correct answer if correct measurement is indicated (m/km)
  • Area (5 marks)
    ✓ for correct measurement of length on map (cm/mm)
    ✓ for correct measurement of breadth on map (cm/mm)
    ✓ for correct length in reality
    ✓ for correct breadth in reality
    ✓ for correct answer if correct measurement is indicated (m2/km2)
  • Average gradient (5 marks)
    ✓✓ for correct vertical interval
    ✓for correct measurement of map distance between two points
    ✓✓for correct horizontal equivalent
    ✓✓for correct substitution of values into formula
    ✓✓for correct answer expressed as a ratio
  • Vertical exaggeration (5 marks)
    ✓✓for correct conversion to the unit
    ✓ for correct representation of vertical scale as a ratio
    ✓✓for correct horizontal scale given as a ratio
    ✓✓for correct substitution of values into formula – can be a ratio scale or a fraction scale
    ✓✓for correct answer and unit (in case of vertical exaggeration the unit is times, e.g. 20 times)
  • Magnetic declination (5 marks)
    ✓✓for correct difference in years
    ✓✓for correct mean annual change
    ✓✓for correct total annual change
    ✓✓for correct calculation with correct unit (magnetic declination of year map was printed + (✓) total annual change)
  • Magnetic bearing (5 + 2 marks)
    The five marks as indicated above
    ✓✓for correct measurement of true bearing
    ✓✓for correct answer

5. CONCLUSION
This Examination Guidelines document is meant to articulate the assessment aspirations espoused in the CAPS document. It is therefore not a substitute for the CAPS document which teachers should teach to.
Qualitative curriculum coverage as enunciated in the CAPS cannot be over-emphasised.

ANNEXURE A
ACTION WORDS (VERBS/COMMAND WORDS) FOR ASSESSMENT

VERB  MEANING  HOW TO ANSWER 
Account  to answer for - explain the cause of - so as to explain why   Full sentences
Analyse  to separate, examine and interpret critically   Full sentences
Annotate  to add explanatory notes to a sketch, map or drawing   Add labels to drawings 
Appraise  to form an opinion how successful/effective something is   Full sentences
Argue  to put forward reasons in support of or against a proposition   Full sentences
Assess  to carefully consider before making a judgment   Full sentences
Categorise  to place things into groups based on their characteristics   One-word answers/phrases 
Classify to divide into groups or types so that things with similar characteristics are in the same group - to arrange according to type or sort  One-word answers/phrases
Comment to write generally about Full sentences
Compare to point out or show both similarities and differences Full sentences
Construct to draw a shape A diagram is required
Contrast to stress the differences, dissimilarities, or unlikeness of things, qualities, events or problems Full sentences
Create to develop a new or original idea Full sentences
Criticise to make comments showing that something is bad or wrong Full sentences
Decide to consider something carefully and decide what should be done Full sentences
Defend to say things to protect something Full sentences
Define to give the concise and clear meaning Full sentences
Devise to invent a method to do something Full sentences
Demonstrate to show or make clear - to illustrate and explain - to prove by reasoning and evidence - examples can be given Full sentences
Describe to list the main characteristics of something - give an account of Full sentences
Develop to successfully develop and create a new method/idea Full sentences
Differentiate to show the difference between things Full sentences
Discriminate to recognise the difference between things Full sentences
Discuss to examine by means of argument, presenting both sides and reaching a conclusion Full sentences
Distinguish to recognise the difference between things Full sentences
Draw to show by means of a sketch A diagram is required
Evaluate to make an appraisal or express an opinion concerning the value - to define, analyse and discuss Full sentences
Examine to look at something carefully - to analyse and discuss Full sentences
Explain to make clear, interpret and spell out the material you present Full sentences
Find to make a formal decision about something Full sentences
Formulate to express an idea/opinion in a carefully organised way Full sentences
Give to state facts without discussions One-word answers
Identify to give the essential characteristics of - to name One-word answers
Illustrate to show what something is like - to show that something is true Full sentences
Interpret to give an explanation of - to give the meaning of Full sentences
Investigate to try to find the facts about something Full sentences
Justify to prove or give reasons for decisions or conclusions, using logical argument Full sentences
List to write an itemised series of concise statements One-word answers
Locate to find the exact place where something is One-word answers
Mention providing relevant facts Full sentences
Name to state something - give, identify or mention One-word answers
Outline give a summary, using main points and leaving out minor details Full sentences
Plan to think carefully about a series of actions that you need to take in order to achieve something Full sentences
Predict to say what you think will happen - to foretell - to say in advance Full sentences
Prioritise to place in order of importance One-word answers
Propose to suggest a plan - to make a formal suggestion Full sentences
Provide to state facts without discussions Full sentences/ one-word answers
Question to have or express doubts about something Full sentences
Rate to consider that something has a particular quality or achieved a particular quality/level Full sentences/ one-word answers
Recall to remember something Full sentences/ one-word answers
Recognise to accept that something is true or important - to give approval to something Full sentences/ one-word answers
Recommend to advise that something should be done Full sentences
Report to produce an official statement or written document Full sentences
Select to choose something from a greater whole One-word answers
Sketch to illustrate with a simple drawing A diagram is required
Solve to find a solution to something that is causing difficulties Full sentences
State to present information plainly without discussion One-word answers
Suggest to propose an explanation or solution Full sentences
Show to make clear - to point out - to explain Full sentences
Support to show that an idea/statement is true Full sentences
Tabulate to group like terms or activities under specific headings One-word answers/phrases
Tell to recognise something as a result of knowledge One-word answers
Test to examine something to find out if it is satisfactory or has a specific quality Full sentences
Use to do something using a specific skill or method Full sentences
Value to consider the importance/worth of something Full sentences
Verify to check/prove that something is correct Full sentences
Write to create a formal document Full sentences
Last modified on Thursday, 24 June 2021 07:33